American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 53

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SpecialReport: Frac Tech
This implies that some proppant must have been placed at the
well and did not entirely settle out into a bed along the bottom
of the fracture below the well. This could occur because of the
effect of fracture roughness on vertical proppant placement. To
account for this effect, the simulator allows a certain amount of
proppant to become 'trapped' along the fractures and not settle
to the bottom because of gravity. The value of maximum
proppant trapped per area is a history matching parameter.
This combination of observations requires the history match to
set the maximum proppant trapped per area equal to 0.05 lbs/ft2.
At a higher value, the propped fracture length would be too short.
At a lower (or zero) value, no proppant would be deposited at the
V1, and the second V1 DFIT could not be matched.
Fracture Conductivity
To explain the production uplift, this relatively light placement
of proppant (~0.05 lbs/ft2) needs to create fracture conductivity
of at least 5 md-ft. This may seem like surprisingly high conductivity for such a small amount of proppant, but it can be rationalized by considering a few key points.
First, the proppant is higher-strength 30/50-mesh ceramic.
Second, 0.05 lbs/ft2 is the average concentration, but the
proppant is probably distributed into patches and more tortuous
connections, with localized areas of significantly higher concentrations. Third, the lab-measured conductivity of 30/50mesh ceramic in a 2.9 lbs/ft2 proppant pack is on the order of
4,000 md-ft. If conductivity scales linearly with concentration,
it would imply a conductivity of 100 md-ft at 0.05 lbs/ft2,

which is actually 20 times higher than the conductivity values
used in the simulation.
The scaling of conductivity with proppant concentration at
low concentration is not necessarily linear because of the
potential impact of monolayer (increased conductivity), crushing
and embedment (decreased conductivity), and patchiness
(uncertain effect). Regardless, the history match indicates that
the field observations only can be explained if a pathway of approximately 5 md-ft was formed along the fracture between the
V1 and H1. This conductivity was created by proppant injection
from the V1 frac. The initial V1 DFIT caused a minor frac hit
on H1, but did not create an apparent hydraulic connection
between the wells.
There is noticeable pressure depletion around the V1 frac as
it drains into the H1 (Figure 4), even at distances greater than
1,000 feet. However, the fracture does not behave like an infinite-conductivity feature. There is a roughly 2,500-psi pressure
gradient driving flow across the 1,000 feet from the V1 to H1.
By the time of the V2 DFIT (after almost three months of
production from the H1), fracture pressure in the vicinity of
the V1 was roughly 2,500 psi lower than the undisturbed formation fluid pressure. The corresponding poroelastic pressure
decrease is about 250 psi at the fracture face. If the region of
pressure depletion was uniform across the entire formation,
the uniaxial stress equation would predict a significantly
larger poroelastic stress change. The lower-than-predicted
poroelastic response is because of pressure depletion extending
only a few feet from the fracture face.

FIGURE 4
Pressure, Poroelastic Stress Change, Conductivity and Saturation Distribution Before V2 DFIT

1st

Pressure
1040

Poroelastic delta sxx (psi)
2701

4363

6024

7686

5

-887.8

-481.6

-75.36

330.9

Oil saturation + gas saturation

Fracture conductivity (md-ft)
0.0002696

-1294

10

11 y, 193 d, 9 h, 38 m, 24 s

15

20.00

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1.000

Stretch: Horiz = 5, Direction = 90 deg, Vert = 1

APRIL 2021 53



American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021

Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Intro
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover1
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover2
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 4
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 5
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 6
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 7
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 8
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 9
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American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover3
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover4
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