American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 70

pages 69-71_Layout 1 4/9/2021 9:49 AM Page 70

SpecialReport: Fluids Chemistry
30 wells drilled with first-generation oilbased muds, the water-based wells had
16% lower total fluid costs and were
ready for completion an average of 4.5
days sooner.
" The water-based muds enabled faster
ROPs in the laterals, but that is not the
only reason they sped well construction, "
Vordick says. " Drilling the entire well
with a water-based mud also eliminates
the need to switch from a water-based
mud to an oil-based mud between the
vertical and lateral sections, which saves
time and pit cleaning costs. "
Vordick adds that water-based muds
simplify cuttings disposal and reduce
rental costs for some tools. " From conversations with Midland Basin operators,
we think replacing oil-based muds with
water-based translates to significant perwell savings. "
Progress Offshore
The demands placed on drilling and
completion fluids in the Gulf of Mexico
are growing, notes Samy Helmy, vice
president of fluids and completion services
at TETRA Technologies Inc. " As producers go into deeper waters and plan
longer step-outs, managing pressures and
circulating densities has required more
creativity and collaboration, " he reports.
To reduce capital and operating costs,
operators increasingly share production
facilities, Helmy adds. He says this trend
has helped create a need for more envi-

ronmentally friendly completion fluids.
" The production facility likely will
comingle fluids from the fields it serves,
so if any of them contain something that
imposes environmental restriction, that
restriction will apply to all the fluids.
For example, if one of the wells uses
zinc, a priority pollutant that cannot be
discharged, all the produced water will
need to be either treated-if feasible-off
shore or more likely shipped on shore
for treatment, " he warns.
Zinc bromide completion fluids are
still used despite zinc's status as a priority
pollutant because they offer the high
densities needed to hold back extreme
pressures, Helmy says. " Cesium formate
can deliver those high densities with a
more benign environmental profile, but
because it is mainly produced in one facility and has been mined for decades,
it is almost depleted and therefore expensive, " he says.
To offer a more affordable alternative
to zinc bromide, TETRA worked with an
operator in the Gulf of Mexico, where the
use of zinc bromide was not feasible on a
challenging project, to develop a new fluid
that contains neither zinc nor formate.
" We are really proud we were able to
come up with an innovative fluid system
that has never been used before, " he says.
The fluid was commercialized in 2015.
In the Gulf of Mexico, the first-generation
iteration was applied seven times, Helmy
relates. " We are on the fourth generation, "

This TETRA Technologies Inc. facility in Port Fourchon, La., delivers clear brine fluids,
specialty fluid blends and chemical additives, as well as lube oils and drilling fluids.
The company says it is improving its manufacturing processes and pushing the
envelope on which fluids can be reclaimed as part of a broader effort to help operators
reduce costs.

70 THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTER

he shares. " Today, we can offer both divalent and monovalent versions, including
an extremely dense divalent fluid that
can go above 17 pounds per gallon. "
For Europe, Helmy says TETRA is
designing and validating variants that
are stable from minus 40 degrees F to
375 degrees F, enabling their use in
both winter and summer and during
HP/HT projects. " Our novel fluid has
the capabilities for almost every offshore
application, but we believe we can
always do something better, " Helmy
says. " Much of our attention is on
finding ways to reduce the fluid's cost
and improve performance. "
Saving Money
While cost savings can come from optimizing completion fluids' design and
manufacturing process, Helmy stresses
that it is critical to look at ancillary activity
as well. " Time is money, " he notes. " If
we can improve those activities' efficiency,
we can provide value to our clients and
help make their fields viable, which will
create wealth for the country. "
One process on which TETRA has
focused is displacing drilling mud from
the well and replacing it with clean brine
for the completion. " This involves using
displacement fluids between the drilling
mud and clean brine, " Helmy notes. " In
an ultra-deepwater well, the interface between the mud and brine may have 800900 barrels of contaminated fluid. "
In response, Helmy says TETRA developed an alternative displacement system. " This system uses radical chemistries
that shorten the interface and cut waste
by 50%-70%, which saves rig time and
reduces overall costs, " he says.
Optimizing logistics is a key part of
controlling costs in deepwater wells, mentions Joey Detiveaux, TETRA's area manager for U.S. offshore completion services
and fluids. " A deepwater well may require
10,000 or 15,000 barrels of fluid, 10
times as much as a shelf job, " he says.
To shrink required fluid volumes,
Helmy says TETRA is modifying its
manufacturing process to produce more
concentrated additives. " The other key
is maintaining the on-site fluid without
losing rig time, " he relates. " A few years
ago, if a well required completion fluids
to be pumped at 40 barrels a minute, no
filtration unit would have been able to
keep up. We have created filtration units
that use a unique design to handle twice
the volumes with a small increase in



American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021

Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Intro
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover1
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover2
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 4
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 5
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 6
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 7
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 8
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 9
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 10
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 11
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 12
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 13
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 14
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 15
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 16
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 17
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 18
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 19
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 20
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 21
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 22
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 23
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 24
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 25
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 26
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 27
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 28
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 29
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 30
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 31
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 32
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 33
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 34
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 35
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 36
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 37
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 38
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 39
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 40
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 41
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 42
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 43
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 44
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 45
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 46
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 47
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 48
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 49
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 50
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 51
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 52
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 53
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 54
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 55
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 56
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 57
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 58
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 59
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 60
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 61
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 62
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 63
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 64
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 65
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 66
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 67
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 68
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 69
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 70
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 71
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 72
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 73
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 74
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 75
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 76
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 77
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 78
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 79
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 80
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 81
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - 82
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover3
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2021 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/pbios_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201806
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201805
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201803
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201802
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201707
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201706
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201705
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201704
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201703
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201702
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201701
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/pbios2016_programguide
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201608
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201606
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201605
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201604
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201603
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201602
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201601
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201508
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201507
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201505
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201504
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201503
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201502
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201501
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/pbios2014_programguide
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201408
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201407
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201406
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201404
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201403
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201402
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201401
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201308
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201307
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201306
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201305
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201303
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201302
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201301
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/2012_pbios
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/demo/aogr_clone
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201112
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com