American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - 52

linked to changes in the near-wellbore region
(NWR), where the lateral interacts
with reservoir rock.
NWR facies and cement integrity effects
fracture complexity and tortuosity. In one
study of a sliding sleeve completion in an
unconventional lateral, different rock types
resulted in different post-frac leak off
rates, implying variable fracture geometry
and indicating that the mechanical properties
of near-wellbore rock may control
fracture initiation complexity. If stages
(when grouped geologically) indicate that
NWR facies impact frac behavior, it should
be expected that the per-cluster fracture
behavior in a geometric plug-and-perf
completion will vary when NWR is not
homogeneous. Cement density is a part
of the NWR and can influence PCE.
Pressure drop in the NWR because of
tortuosity is the most dominant factor influencing
uniformity. This pressure drop
from fracture complexity can be linked
to the NWR facies changes and the variability
of cement integrity along the lateral
and needs to be overcome to propagate a
fracture at a given location.
Aggressive limited-entry and extreme
limited-entry (XLE) perforating schemes
attempt to overcome differences in the
net entry pressure at each perforation
cluster location. However, perforation
erosion rates are quick and poorly understood.
Perforation erosion affects both
the discharge coefficient and perforation
diameter, which is a controlling factor in
limited-entry designs.
In an Eagle Ford study, an XLE design
demonstrating 5,000 psi of pre-frac perforation
friction resulted in less than 600
psi post-frac. Relying on perf friction
alone will not always adequately divert
fluids throughout the treatment. Further
insights and evaluation of the NWR to
better understand the changes in the
facies, the distribution of minimum horizontal
stress and elastic properties, along
with cement density in and around each
cluster location, is necessary when optimizing
and understanding PCE and SDE.
LWT Measurements
LWT provides wireline-quality data
while increasing operational efficiencies
and lowering data acquisition costs and
risk during drilling. Through LWT measurements,
the variability of the NWR
facies can be understood. For PCE evaluation,
LWT is used again during the
post-fracturing plug removal phase, allowing
for the same operational efficiencies
as during drilling. PCE is derived from
fracturing water saturation distribution,
which is determined by comparing the
post-frac log results with the open-hole
measurements taken while tripping out
with the drill bit.
A compensated neutron log is obtained
in the open-hole section of the well prefrac
during drilling and again post-frac
during plug removal. By normalizing the
count rate readings because of the change
in the environment, and by utilizing the
LWT mandrel density measurement to
identify areas of variable cement density
influence, the fracturing-related change
in the hydrogen index can be observed in
the NWR (Figure 1A).
The neutron count rate is most heavily
influenced by hydrogen. Since the distribution
of formation readings already is obtained
with open-hole logs, the post-fracturing
change can be determined. A dimensionless
curve is processed along the
lateral, representing frac fluid distribution.
When the allocation of frac fluid is compared
for perforation locations within a stage, a
new PCE measurement is obtained.
To assess the relative effectiveness of
LWT, a study was conducted in a Niobrara
and a Codell lateral on a 19-well pad development
in the Denver-Julesburg Basin.
For this pad, LWT data was acquired on
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prospect decisions
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state-of-the-art geophysical
interpretations
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world. They understand the objectives,
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52 THE AMERICAN OIL & GAS REPORTER
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American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022

Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Intro
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Cover1
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Cover2
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - 4
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - 5
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American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Cover3
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Cover4
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