American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - 61

Two sampling rates were tested for
the proppant logging experiment. Initial
samples were captured at a rate of one
sample every 30 feet. The sampling rate
was increased later to one sample every
90 feet The sampling rates and identified
proppant counts are shown in Figure 1,
with the positioning of parent laterals
BR1H and BR2H for context. The red
curve shows proppant counts. The blue
curve shows other proppant-like mineral
counts. The dotted black trace shows the
sampling rate.
Widely varying proppant distribution
was observed across the logged lateral.
However, at first glance, it appears that
the toe of the child well had significant
pre-existing proppant particles logged
when compared with the rest of the
well. The proppant counts from the log
are displayed as normalized with respect
to the total sample weight imaged and
analyzed so that counts are normalized
per gram of sample collected at any
logged locations.
Absolute proppant counts as well as
particle ratio (proppant versus other minerals)
are required for accurate interpretation.
Sampling locations with lower
counts but high ratios are indicative of
proppant presence, just not in large quantities.
There are multiple ways to develop
a thresholding or normalization criteria
such that both these measures can be
used to decide locations that are propped
and likely to be drained versus locations
that are relatively unpropped or zones
with other issues (such as localized proppant
screen out).
Study Results
An important indicator for presence
of proppant in the samples, apart from
the actual counts, is the ratio of proppant
to other mineral particles. if the sample
preparation protocols are appropriate and
consistent, one should see higher ratios
where proppant particles are observed in
the samples.
A significant increase in the ratio of
proppant to other mineral particles was
observed in the zone corresponding to the
shadow of the parent laterals. This result
was validated using open-hole oil based
microimager (OMBI) log interpretations
to correlate possible hydraulic fractures
with observed proppant distribution.
The OMBI data was used to identify
the distribution of subvertical fractures
in the B2H child well and compare the
location of fractures with the identified
proppant distribution. The two datasets
BR1H/BR2H
FRACTURE
DETECTION
CORRIDOR AT B2H
(Figure 2) show a strong correlation
between the zone where significant and
likely hydraulic fractures begin (laterally
proximal to BR1H/BR2H) and the initiation
of significant proppant particles.
This validated the broader proppant
particle distribution, particularly the
relative proppant count, which is the
strongest indicator of presence of proppant
particles.
There were sections along the parent
laterals where identified proppant counts
were relatively low, from 16,000 to 17,000
feet MD, for example. However, since
FIGURE 2
BR1H/BR2H and TR7H/TR8H Parent Well Fracture
Intersection Corridors with B2H Child Well
TR5H TR6H TR7H TR8H
very high relative proppant counts were
observed in these areas, these depths and
sections were interpreted to be proppant
rich. Interestingly, significant proppant
peaks are apparent in the heel end of the
B2H lateral at the shallowest measured
depths along the sampled interval. These
peaks correlate with significant subvertical
conductive fractures, as observed from
image log data. The BR1H/ BR2H parent
laterals cannot explain this observation.
The most likely explanation is that
these fractures are associated with other
pre-existing parent laterals (TR7H/TR8H)
TR7H/TR8H FRACTURE
DETECTION CORRIDOR
AT B2H
2000 ft
B1H B4H
TR13H TR14H TR15H TR16H
APRIL 2022 61
B3H B2H BR1H BR2H

American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022

Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Intro
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Cover1
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Cover2
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Contents
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - 4
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - 5
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American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Cover3
American Oil and Gas Reporter - April 2022 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/202205
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/pbios2016_programguide
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aogr/2012_pbios
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