Flight Training - July 2012 - 37

I FEEL THE NEED FOR SPEED
The various V speed definitions from FAR Part 1 VA VB VC VD VDF VEF VF VFC VFE VH VLE VLO VLOF VMC VMO VMU VFTO VMU VNE VNO VR VREF VS VSo VS1 VSR VSRO VSR1 VSW VTOSS VX VY V1 design maneuvering speed design speed for maximum gust intensity VA and a gust causes a sudden, design cruising speed substantial increase in load facdesign diving speed tor, it could be the structure that demonstrated flight diving speed fails. As you can imagine, an inspeed at which the critical engine is assumed to fail during takeoff flight structural failure—which design flap speed may be as severe as the loss of maximum speed for stability the tail section—tends to shift characteristics an otherwise uneventful flight maximum flap extended speed in the direction of an unpleasant maximum speed in level flight with outcome. maximum continuous power Even if the structure doesn’t fail, maximum landing gear extended speed nobody wants to get back home to maximum landing gear operating speed see wrinkled skin on their aircraft. lift-off speed Many pilots mistakenly believe minimum control speed with the the term “design maneuvering critical engine inoperative speed” means that, as long as maximum operating limit speed you are at or below VA, you can minimum unstick speed move the controls from stop to final takeoff speed stop repeatedly without doing minimum unstick speed damage to the aircraft. That’s not never-exceed speed really true. In fact, the FAA was maximum structural cruising speed concerned enough about this misrotation speed understanding of the term to add reference landing speed a statement to Part 25 of the FARs stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed at which the for Transport category aircraft. airplane is controllable Although this part doesn’t come into stalling speed or the minimum play in the certification of general steady flight speed in the aviation aircraft, the science is still landing configuration valid. The FAA says, in part, “flying stalling speed or the minimum steady flight speed obtained in at or below the design maneuvering a specific configuration speed does not allow a pilot to make reference stall speed multiple large control inputs in one reference stall speed in the airplane axis or single full control landing configuration inputs in more than one airplane axis reference stall speed in a at a time without endangering the specific configuration airplane’s structure.” speed at which onset of natural or artificial stall warning occurs The crux of that statement is, essentakeoff safety speed for tially, cool it. Stay at or below VA in Category A rotorcraft rough air, and avoid large control inputs best angle of climb that might cause significant damage to best rate of climb the aircraft. maximum speed in the takeoff at which the pilot must take VFE. One important V speed the first action (e.g., apply brakes, reduce thrust, deploy speed doesn’t actually apply to all pilots—at brakes) to stop the airplane least not in every airplane they fly. VFE is within the accelerate-stop the maximum flap extended speed, and distance. V1 also means the minimum speed in the takeoff, it is represented by the top of the white following a failure of the arc on the airspeed indicator. Below critical engine at VEF, at which the this speed you can hang the flaps out all pilot can continue the takeoff and achieve the required height day long. Above VFE is a different story above the takeoff surface within entirely. If your airspeed rises above the the takeoff distance top of the white arc while your flaps are takeoff safety speed down, you may damage or even lose one minimum takeoff safety speed

fusing is in airplanes where partial flaps are allowed above VFE. When this happens, often a placard will remind the pilot of the maximum partial-flap speed. Admittedly, not all airplanes have flaps. Most do, though, especially those built since the mid-1950s. So even Cub and Champ drivers who are used to motoring around in an airplane that is flap-free will find it useful to remember the meaning of VFE. One day you may borrow, rent, buy, or become a partner in an airplane with a more modern wing that benefits from the additional lift and drag flaps can offer.

»V

. Many pilots unwisely may be NO tempted to flirt with VNO. It’s easily identifiable as the speed that corresponds with the upper limit of the green arc on the airspeed indicator. Maximum structural cruising speed is the highest speed you can safely pilot your aircraft in smooth air. Above that limit you may cause damage to the airplane. Then again, you may fly into an area of less-than-smooth air that can cause damage at less than VNO. All the more reason to be cautious when dealing with the speed of your aircraft.

»

VNE. The one airspeed that contains no mystery at all is VNE. Don’t go there. Never-exceed speed is an absolute limit, and the name suggests exactly how important this airspeed restriction is. The manufacturer, its engineering staff, and the test pilots who brought the airplane to market are all in agreement: You should never attempt to fly your airplane faster than VNE for any reason. Even the color code—a red line on the airspeed indicator—says stop. So take their word for it. Of course the upshot of all this is simple. The goal is to be safe, maintain the structural integrity of the airplane, and enjoy each and every flight as much as possible. That’s a tough goal to reach if parts are bending, breaking, or falling off the airplane. A good pilot can prevent that from happening by simply knowing and observing the V speeds established for his or her airplane.
Jamie Beckett is a writer and flight instructor living in Winter Haven, Florida.
JULY 2012 FLIGHT TRAINING / 37

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V2 V2MIN

or both of your flaps. Where it gets con-



Flight Training - July 2012

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Flight Training - July 2012

Flight Training - July 2012
President’s Perspective
Right Seat
Letters
Best of Both Worlds
How It Works
Knowledge Test News
After the Checkride
News
Since You Asked
News
Final Exam
Products
ASI News
AOPA Action
Flying Carpet
ENJOY THE VIEW
V IS FOR VELOCITY
TECHNIQUE
Weather
Checkride
Flight Lesson
Year One
Career Advisor
Tech Talk
Is Flying Hard?
Delaying Solo
Are You Positive?
Advertiser Index
Debrief
Flight Training - July 2012 - Flight Training - July 2012
Flight Training - July 2012 - Cover2
Flight Training - July 2012 - 1
Flight Training - July 2012 - 2
Flight Training - July 2012 - 3
Flight Training - July 2012 - President’s Perspective
Flight Training - July 2012 - 5
Flight Training - July 2012 - Right Seat
Flight Training - July 2012 - Letters
Flight Training - July 2012 - 8
Flight Training - July 2012 - 9
Flight Training - July 2012 - Best of Both Worlds
Flight Training - July 2012 - 11
Flight Training - July 2012 - How It Works
Flight Training - July 2012 - Knowledge Test News
Flight Training - July 2012 - After the Checkride
Flight Training - July 2012 - News
Flight Training - July 2012 - Since You Asked
Flight Training - July 2012 - 17
Flight Training - July 2012 - News
Flight Training - July 2012 - 19
Flight Training - July 2012 - Final Exam
Flight Training - July 2012 - Products
Flight Training - July 2012 - ASI News
Flight Training - July 2012 - AOPA Action
Flight Training - July 2012 - 24
Flight Training - July 2012 - 25
Flight Training - July 2012 - Flying Carpet
Flight Training - July 2012 - 27
Flight Training - July 2012 - ENJOY THE VIEW
Flight Training - July 2012 - 29
Flight Training - July 2012 - 30
Flight Training - July 2012 - 31
Flight Training - July 2012 - 32
Flight Training - July 2012 - 33
Flight Training - July 2012 - V IS FOR VELOCITY
Flight Training - July 2012 - 35
Flight Training - July 2012 - 36
Flight Training - July 2012 - 37
Flight Training - July 2012 - TECHNIQUE
Flight Training - July 2012 - 39
Flight Training - July 2012 - Weather
Flight Training - July 2012 - 41
Flight Training - July 2012 - 42
Flight Training - July 2012 - Checkride
Flight Training - July 2012 - Flight Lesson
Flight Training - July 2012 - Year One
Flight Training - July 2012 - Career Advisor
Flight Training - July 2012 - 47
Flight Training - July 2012 - Tech Talk
Flight Training - July 2012 - Is Flying Hard?
Flight Training - July 2012 - Delaying Solo
Flight Training - July 2012 - Are You Positive?
Flight Training - July 2012 - Advertiser Index
Flight Training - July 2012 - 53
Flight Training - July 2012 - 54
Flight Training - July 2012 - 55
Flight Training - July 2012 - Debrief
Flight Training - July 2012 - Cover3
Flight Training - July 2012 - Cover4
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