Flight Training - January 2015 - 32

exist. However, it is not necessary that the
pilot know any of those factors (temperature, pressure, et cetera). All you need
to know is that, if you hold a consistent,
slightly nose-up attitude (positive angle of
attack), the airplane will accelerate to an
unknown speed at which every factor having to do with the takeoff will be satisfied
and the airplane will leave the ground.
Further, it will have a decidedly positive
climb rate and it will be a seamless, graceful entry into the sky.
If there is any technique at all involved
in this kind of takeoff, it is a simple one
that is based on understanding how
increasing airspeed affects the efficiency
of control surfaces.
Early in the takeoff roll, as soon as the
elevator has enough effectiveness, bring
the nose up far enough that the nosewheel
is barely clear of the ground-and keep it
there. However, to hold a consistent angle,
you must compensate for the effectiveness of the elevator, which increases as
the speed builds. As the airplane accelerates, the tail becomes more effective, and
the elevator tries to bring up the nose
farther-without moving the control yoke.
But we don't want this. We want a stable
angle of attack, so the elevator must be
relaxed as the speed increases (assuming a
nosewheel airplane).

Airspeed versus lift
250
Airspeed (mph)

200
150
100
50
0
0 10

20

30

40

50

60

Lift (lbs)

THE RELATIONSHIP between airspeed, lift, and angle of attack produces the foundation of all
great takeoffs. Lift increases with airspeed (top) and with angle of attack (below).
Lift versus angle of attack
CL

.2000

1.8

18

.1600

1.6

16

.1400

1.4

14

Coefficient of drag

.1800

Stall point

During most of the takeoff roll, you
are fixating on the far end of the runway
and using it to judge the airplane's nose
attitude. As the speed increases, the
nose will try to climb above the reference point. So you release just a hair of
back-pressure. The nose stabilizes. Then,
almost immediately, as speed continues
to increase, the nose tries to rise again, so
more back-pressure is released. Little by
little, as the airplane accelerates, you are
slowly releasing back-pressure to keep the
nose at exactly the attitude you initially
selected. Fight the urge to let the airplane
rise at the last second, and instead trade
lift for speed that will benefit you in the
soon-to-come climb.
Other than controlling the nose
attitude and keeping the airplane on the
centerline, you don't pay attention to
anything else. Regardless of the temperature, the load, the humidity-or whatever
else-at that low angle of attack, the
airplane will not leave the ground until
it reaches a speed that it is happy with.
That speed will be far enough above stall
speed that you and the airplane will be
totally safe and not affected by typical gust spreads. If severe gusts or high
crosswinds exist, other techniques apply
and safety/control concerns supersede
being graceful.
When we master the kind of takeoff
in which the airplane actually makes the
final decision, not the pilot, we've stepped
over one of the lines that separate the normal pilot from a true aviator. The former
just wants the airplane off the ground,
while the latter wants the takeoff to be
another maneuver that demonstrates
his skill at managing three-dimensional
nuances. At the same time, it increases
safety and brings a smile to him, the airplane, and those watching.
The best takeoffs are those that are so
smooth, they surprise us. This is where
flying becomes an art and the tao of flight
begins.

12
10

0.8

8

.0600

0.6

6

.0400

0.4

4

Budd Davisson is an aviation writer/photographer

.0200

0.2

2

and magazine editor. A CFI since 1967, he teaches

0

0

about 30 hours a month in his Pitts S-2A. Visit his

Total lift
curve

.1000
.0800

0

0° 2°

4°

6°

8°

10°

12°

14°

16°

Critical angle of attack
32 /

FLIGHTTRAINING.AOPA.ORG

18° 20° 22°

Lift/drag

1.2
1.0

.1200

website (www.airbum.com).


http://www.airbum.com http://FLIGHTTRAINING.AOPA.ORG

Flight Training - January 2015

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Flight Training - January 2015

Contents
Flight Training - January 2015 - Cover1
Flight Training - January 2015 - Cover2
Flight Training - January 2015 - Contents
Flight Training - January 2015 - 2
Flight Training - January 2015 - 3
Flight Training - January 2015 - 4
Flight Training - January 2015 - 5
Flight Training - January 2015 - 6
Flight Training - January 2015 - 7
Flight Training - January 2015 - 8
Flight Training - January 2015 - 9
Flight Training - January 2015 - 10
Flight Training - January 2015 - 11
Flight Training - January 2015 - 12
Flight Training - January 2015 - 13
Flight Training - January 2015 - 14
Flight Training - January 2015 - 15
Flight Training - January 2015 - 16
Flight Training - January 2015 - 17
Flight Training - January 2015 - 18
Flight Training - January 2015 - 19
Flight Training - January 2015 - 20
Flight Training - January 2015 - 21
Flight Training - January 2015 - 22
Flight Training - January 2015 - 23
Flight Training - January 2015 - 24
Flight Training - January 2015 - 25
Flight Training - January 2015 - 26
Flight Training - January 2015 - 27
Flight Training - January 2015 - 28
Flight Training - January 2015 - 29
Flight Training - January 2015 - 30
Flight Training - January 2015 - 31
Flight Training - January 2015 - 32
Flight Training - January 2015 - 33
Flight Training - January 2015 - 34
Flight Training - January 2015 - 35
Flight Training - January 2015 - 36
Flight Training - January 2015 - 37
Flight Training - January 2015 - 38
Flight Training - January 2015 - 39
Flight Training - January 2015 - 40
Flight Training - January 2015 - 41
Flight Training - January 2015 - 42
Flight Training - January 2015 - 43
Flight Training - January 2015 - 44
Flight Training - January 2015 - 45
Flight Training - January 2015 - 46
Flight Training - January 2015 - 47
Flight Training - January 2015 - 48
Flight Training - January 2015 - 49
Flight Training - January 2015 - 50
Flight Training - January 2015 - 51
Flight Training - January 2015 - 52
Flight Training - January 2015 - 53
Flight Training - January 2015 - 54
Flight Training - January 2015 - 55
Flight Training - January 2015 - 56
Flight Training - January 2015 - Cover3
Flight Training - January 2015 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201806
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201805
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201803
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201802
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201707
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201706
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201705
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201704
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201703
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201702
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201701
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201608
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201606
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201605
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201604
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201603
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201602
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201601
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201508
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201507
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201505
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201504
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201503
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201502
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201501
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201408
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201407
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201406
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201404
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201403
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201402
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201401
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201308
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201307
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201306
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201305
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201303
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201302
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201301
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/ft_201103
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com