Flight Training - July 2020 - 19

CHECKRIDE

BY BOB SCHMELZER

RUNWAY INCURSION AVOIDANCE
MANAGING THE RISKS

clearance. A professional way to do this is by saying, "Condards addresses risk management, it should be no surprise
firm taxi instructions." Another way to get more assistance
that the hazards associated with runway incursions would
from ATC when in doubt is to request a "progressive taxi."
be a topic of discussion during your checkride. While
Be extremely vigilant when crossing any runway hold
runway incursions can be caused by air traffic controllers,
short markings or signs by religiously performing three
pilots, or even drivers of airport vehicles, most runway
critical standard operating procedures: Look in both direcincursions are the direct result of pilot deviations. Accordtions to confirm you are clear, mentally confirm that you
ing to FAA statistics, of the 1,757 runway incursions that
have actually received a clearance to cross that runway, and
occurred in 2019 alone, 1,119-nearly 64 percent-were
turn on all anticollision strobes and landing lights when
caused by pilot deviations. Even more sobering is the fact
crossing the hold line. Follow this same "three-action SOP"
that three out of every four of these pilot deviations were
upon entering the runway after receiving either "cleared
caused by general aviation pilots.
for takeoff" or "line up and wait" instructions.
What makes taxiing an airplane on the airport surface
Before returning for landing, be sure to refer to the
so challenging? There are several factors, any one of which airport diagram to develop a runway exit strategy and a
can lead to a deviation. But some combination of pilot
routing plan for taxi to parking. After landing, rememinexperience, lack of situational awareness, confusion over ber, it is not acceptable to exit the landing runway onto
ATC instructions, unfamiliarity with the airport, complexanother runway without explicit authorization from the
ity of runway/taxiway layout, lack
tower-and no stopping or making
of planning, and failure to follow
a 180-degree turn on the runway,
standard operating procedures
FAA data indicates there were
either. Once clear of the runway
(SOPs) can make taxiing one of the
1,757 runway incursion incidents
with the aircraft completely past the
most demanding tasks you'll have to
nationwide in 2019, 1,119 of which
runway hold line, stop the aircraft and
accomplish during your checkride.
were classified as pilot deviations.
perform any required after-landing
Your designated pilot examiner
Learn more about runway
checklist items. Then, contact ATC
will want to see you demonstrate
safety in the Air Safety Institute's
for taxi instructions, if applicable,
this important task in several ways.
safety spotlight.
prior to resuming taxi-and as always,
First, after obtaining winds and
airsafetyinstitute.org/spotlight/
with reference to the airport diagram.
active runway information, visualize
runwaysafety
When operating at nontowered
a likely taxi route that you might
airports, be especially vigilant since
follow using the airport/taxi diagram
some airports have nonstandard
prior to calling for your taxi clearmarkings and signs that may lead to
ance. Pay attention when your route takes you through any confusion, or to unintentionally crossing onto an active
designated "hot spots," where increased vigilance is always runway. Also, "line up and wait" is strongly discouraged at
appropriate. Most of the popular aviation apps also include nontowered airports. Don't proceed onto the runway until
a means to highlight the route directly onto the electronic
you are prepared to take off without delay. And always
chart. This pretaxi planning helps to eliminate confusion
use standard phraseology for announcing your position
while increasing your situational awareness.
and intentions on the common traffic advisory frequency
Next, when you contact ATC for your taxi clearance,
while being vigilant for nonradio-equipped aircraft in the
be prepared to write down the instructions and then read
vicinity. Of the several documents available for reviewing
them back, verbatim, especially any runway crossing
runway incursion avoidance, including Advisory Circular
or hold short instructions. Now that you have your taxi
91-73B, the most comprehensive can be found in Appendix
clearance, but before releasing the brakes, make sure you
1 of the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, availfully understand the routing and instructions as received.
able online at the FAA website (faa.gov).
Be aware that the clearance you received may differ from
what you had anticipated, so be careful to follow the actual BOB SCHMELZER is a Chicago-area designated pilot examiner, a
cleared routing. And if you have any doubt or uncertainty
retired United Airlines captain and Boeing 777 line check airman.
about the ATC instructions, do not hesitate to verify the
He has been an active gold seal flight instructor since 1972.
BECAUSE MUCH OF THE AIRMAN CERTIFICATION STAN-

AOPA.ORG/FT  19


http://www.airsafetyinstitute.org/spotlight/runwaysafety http://www.airsafetyinstitute.org/spotlight/runwaysafety http://www.faa.gov http://www.AOPA.ORG/FT

Flight Training - July 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Flight Training - July 2020

Contents
Flight Training - July 2020 - Intro
Flight Training - July 2020 - Cover1
Flight Training - July 2020 - Cover2
Flight Training - July 2020 - Contents
Flight Training - July 2020 - 2
Flight Training - July 2020 - 3
Flight Training - July 2020 - 4
Flight Training - July 2020 - 5
Flight Training - July 2020 - 6
Flight Training - July 2020 - 7
Flight Training - July 2020 - 8
Flight Training - July 2020 - 9
Flight Training - July 2020 - 10
Flight Training - July 2020 - 11
Flight Training - July 2020 - 12
Flight Training - July 2020 - 13
Flight Training - July 2020 - 14
Flight Training - July 2020 - 15
Flight Training - July 2020 - 16
Flight Training - July 2020 - 17
Flight Training - July 2020 - 18
Flight Training - July 2020 - 19
Flight Training - July 2020 - 20
Flight Training - July 2020 - 21
Flight Training - July 2020 - 22
Flight Training - July 2020 - 23
Flight Training - July 2020 - 24
Flight Training - July 2020 - 25
Flight Training - July 2020 - 26
Flight Training - July 2020 - 27
Flight Training - July 2020 - 28
Flight Training - July 2020 - 29
Flight Training - July 2020 - 30
Flight Training - July 2020 - 31
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Flight Training - July 2020 - 35
Flight Training - July 2020 - 36
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Flight Training - July 2020 - 40
Flight Training - July 2020 - 41
Flight Training - July 2020 - 42
Flight Training - July 2020 - 43
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Flight Training - July 2020 - 55
Flight Training - July 2020 - 56
Flight Training - July 2020 - Cover3
Flight Training - July 2020 - Cover4
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