# AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 85

```FINALLY!
A CARD
FOR PILOTS.

2%

Cash Back1 FBO's
& Flight Schools;
Aviation & Auto Fuel
CASH BACK1 APPLIED AS STATEMENT CREDIT.

Switch today to the
new AOPA credit card,
and stop paying too
much on your
aviation purchases.

Visit

AOPA.org/creditcard

AS THE ANGLE OF ATTACK of the wing increases, the point at which the flow separates from

Figure 4. As the angle of attack of the wing increases, the point at which the flow

the
airfoil surface
moves
the
edge.the
When
the separation
bubble,
or the region
separates
from the
airfoiltoward
surface
moves
toward
edge. When
the separation
of
reversed
flow
that
occupies
theof
region
between
thethe
airfoil
andbetween
the
flow,the
envelopes
most
Figure
4.
As
the
angle
of
attack
thethat
wing
increases,
the
point
at which
which
the
flow and
bubble,
or As
the
region
of of
reversed
flow
occupies
region
airfoil
the
Figure
4.
the
angle
attack
of
the
wing
increases,
the
point
at
the
flow
of
theenvelopes
airfoil,
the the
wing
stalls.
Interestingly,
even
at low
angles of
attack,
there
isangles
aseparation
smallof
bit of
separates
from
airfoil
surface
moves
toward
theInterestingly,
edge.
When
the
flow,
most
of the
airfoil,moves
the wing
stalls.
even
at low
separates
from
the
airfoil
surface
toward
the
edge.
When
the
separation
separated
near
the
trailing
edge
the
airfoil.
It isthe
minimized
with-and
the
reason
bubble,
or
the
of
reversed
flow
region
between
airfoil
and
the
attack,
a small
of separated
flowoccupies
near the
trailing
edge
of the the
airfoil.
It is
bubble,there
orflow
theisregion
region
ofbit
reversed
flowofthat
that
occupies
the
region
between
the
airfoil
andthat
the
wings
have-a
trailing
edge.
flow,
most
of
the
wing
stalls.
Interestingly,
minimized
withpointed
and
the
reason
thatthe
wings
a pointed
trailingeven
edge.at
flow, envelopes
envelopes
most
of
the airfoil,
airfoil,
the
winghave
stalls.
Interestingly,
even
at low
low angles
angles of
of

attack,
attack, there
there is
is a
a small
small bit
bit of
of separated
separated flow
flow near
near the
the trailing
trailing edge
edge of
of the
the airfoil.
airfoil. It
It is
is

minimized
with
and
that
wings
have
a
trailing
as
well. The
timelines
prove that
flow
minimized
with
and the
the reason
reason
that the
wings
have narrow
a pointed
pointedstreamlines
trailing edge.
edge.correspond to faster
across the top of the wing is much greater flow which, in turn, results in lower presthan the flow along the bottom. Those sure. With low pressure above the wing
two air particles of the equal transit the- and high pressure below it, lift is the net
ory will never meet again! Note also that force in the upward direction. That's it!
faster flow corresponds to streamlines that
All this represents just a few minare more closely spaced. Finally, Lippisch utes of The Secret of Flight video series.
uses a gas manometer to show the pressure Other highlights include the nature of a
is lowest along those regions of the airfoil wing stall (above) and a visualization of
at which the velocity is highest. Therefore, induced drag via wingtip vortices (p. 86).
aopa.org/pilot AOPA PILOT | 85

*Certain points and purchases restrictions apply, see full Rewards
Terms and Conditions for full details at AOPA.org/creditcard.
1 Rewards points can be redeemed for Cash Back or other items provided through AOPA Pilot Rewards. A Cash Back redemption is applied
as a statement credit. The statement credit will reduce your balance
but you are still required to make at least your minimum payment. A
minimum of 2,500 points is needed to redeem for Cash Back. Values
for non-cash back redemption items such as merchandise, gift cards,
and travel may vary.

```
http://www.AOPA.org/creditcard http://www.AOPA.org/creditcard http://www.aopa.org/pilot

# AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019

Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - Intro
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - BB1
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - BB2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - Cover1
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - Cover2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 4
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 5
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 6
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 7
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 8
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 9
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 10
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 11
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 12
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 13
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 14
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 15
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 16
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 17
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 18
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 19
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 20
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 21
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 22
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 23
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 24
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 25
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 26
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 27
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 28
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 29
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 30
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 31
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 32
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 33
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 34
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 35
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 36
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 37
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 38
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 39
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 40
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 41
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 42
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 43
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 44
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 45
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 46
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 47
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 48
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 49
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 50
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 51
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 52
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 53
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 54
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 55
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 56
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 57
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 58
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 59
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 60
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 61
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 62
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 63
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 64
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 65
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 66
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 67
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 68
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 69
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 70
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 71
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 72
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 73
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 74
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 75
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 76
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 77
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 78
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 79
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 80
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 81
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 82
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 83
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 84
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 85
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 86
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 87
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 88
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 89
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 90
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 91
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 92
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 93
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 94
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 95
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 96
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 97
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 98
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 99
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 100
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 101
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 102
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 103
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 104
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 105
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 106
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 107
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 108
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 109
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 110
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 111
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - 112
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - Cover3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - November 2019 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202408
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202407
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202406
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202404
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202403
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202402
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202401
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202308
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202307
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202306
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202305
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202303
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202302
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202301
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201806
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201805
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201803
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201802
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201707
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201706
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201705
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201704
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201703
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201702
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201701
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201608
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201606
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201605
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201604
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201603
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201602
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201601
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201508
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201507
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201505
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201504
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201503
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201502
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201501
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201408
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201407
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201406
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201404
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201403
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201402
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201401
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201308
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201307
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201306
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201305
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201303
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201302
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201301
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201103_test
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201011demo
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot0308
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com