AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 73

Climatologists such as Brian
Brettschneider of the University of Alaska
Fairbanks utilize data collected from FAA
weather camera sites for their graphs,
maps, and mosaics which in turn help
them not only forecast weather, but keep
track of climate. Brettschneider also studies
the comments and data from pilot reports,
which hold a tremendous value not only to
pilots, but for the study of climate.
"Those are really helpful for getting a
feel for the vertical structure of the atmosphere," Brettschneider said.
Brettschneider says that he'll download
the entire list of pireps nationwide to take
another look at climate. With commercial aviation, the large aircraft are sending
temperature, wind, and atmospheric information that is becoming part of large
computer models.
"Anything that we can get from
that third dimension is really helpful,"
Brettschneider added.
VIEW FROM ABOVE

Glaciers are one of the harbingers of climate change. In Alaska, they are melting
quickly and the aerial evidence is shocking.
The glaciers are melting at an unprecedented rate that is startling to scientists
who have been studying ice core samples
from glaciers in the Alaska Range.
Erich Osterberg, an associate professor
of Earth sciences at Dartmouth College, has
been studying ice core samples of the Alaska
Range for more than a decade.

Osterberg and fellow researchers have
tracked temperatures in the Alaska Range
at 14,000 feet to demonstrate a 3 1/2 degree
Fahrenheit increase in temperature over
the past 400 years, based on the information detected in the ice cores.
"We see a 60-fold increase in summer
melting happening on the Hunter plateau
today compared to approximately 150 years
ago," Osterberg said. The average July air
temperature at Denali base camp on the
Kahiltna glacier is 36.9 degrees F, but on
that scorching July 4 day in the summer of
2019, it reached a whopping 50 degrees F.
Climate change has slowly become a
topic of high priority. But is it a comfortable conversation? The answer depends on
who is sitting at the table. The more reliable the information, the better.
Some of the most valuable tools for
educating people on the changes happening to the landscape are photographs.
The bird's-eye view of pilots can provide
invaluable evidence of the changing landscape that includes melting glaciers, beetle
kill, wildfires, and riverbank and coastal
erosion. All of these visual changes are
being exacerbated by climate warming.
"It's hard to argue against a photograph," Brettschneider said. "A
photograph is a photograph. It's a monument of time that really can't be disputed."
OLD-TIMERS

Photographs document what long-time
Alaskan pilots have witnessed for decades.

WHILE FORESTERS have associated the

beetle kill outbreaks in Alaska with warmer
winters, it has yet to be claimed to be
caused by climate change (facing page).
Glaciologist and expert of ice core studies
Chris Larsen does field research on the
Yahtzee Glacier near Icy Bay of the St. Elias
Mountains (below). Larsen has studied ice
core samples from around the world.

Jim Okonek, who is now in his eighties, has
a wealth of knowledge from flying in the
Alaska Range. He was a previous owner
of K2 Aviation and has been flying around
the state since the 1970s. He says that a big
change he has seen is on the lower Ruth
Glacier, north of the Bubbling Springs near
the terminus, where there used to be a lake
on the lower glacier on the southeast side
that has since drained. 
"There used to be a lake that drained out
of the glacier, and the river runs underneath
the ice," he said. "The river that came out of
there did not appear as a river until about
two to three miles down to the Tokositna
River. Then, it was running underneath the
ice. But now, the glacier melted back."
Photographs of the Lower Ruth Glacier
illustrate the greenery Okonek describes.  
"The glacier has melted back enough
that there is vegetation on top of the ice, a
small young forest. All of that soil on top of
[the] glacier is from wind-blown sediments
from Broad Pass.
"That is a strange phenomenon," he
said. "Wind is carrying glacier silt from
rivers and vegetation is now growing on

aopa.org/pilot AOPA PILOT | 73


http://www.aopa.org/pilot

AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020

Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - Intro
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - Cover1
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - Cover2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 4
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 5
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 6
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 7
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 8
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 9
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 10
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 11
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 12
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 13
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 14
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 15
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 16
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 17
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 18
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 19
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 20
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 21
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 22
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 23
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 24
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 25
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 26
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 27
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 28
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 29
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 30
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 31
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 32
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 33
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 34
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 35
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 36
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 37
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 38
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 39
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 40
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 41
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 42
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 43
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 44
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 45
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 46
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 47
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 48
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 49
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 50
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 51
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 52
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 53
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 54
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 55
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 56
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 57
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 58
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 59
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 60
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 61
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 62
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 63
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 64
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 65
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 66
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 67
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 68
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 69
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 70
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 71
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 72
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 73
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 74
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 75
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 76
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 77
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 78
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 79
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 80
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 81
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 82
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 83
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 84
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 85
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 86
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 87
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 88
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 89
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 90
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 91
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 92
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 93
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 94
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 95
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 96
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 97
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 98
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 99
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 100
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 101
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 102
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 103
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 104
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 105
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 106
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 107
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 108
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 109
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 110
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 111
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - 112
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - Cover3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - October 2020 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_202001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201807
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201806
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201805
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201803
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201802
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201707
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201706
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201705
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201704
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201703
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201702
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201701
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201608
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201606
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201605
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201604
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201603
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201602
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201601
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201508
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201507
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201505
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201504
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201503
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201502
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201501
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201411
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201408
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201407
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201406
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201404
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201403
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201402
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201401
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201308
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201307
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201306
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201305
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201303
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201302
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201301
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201103_test
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201011demo
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot_201011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/aopa/pilot0308
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com