AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 92

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P&E

WX WATCH

AIRCRAFT
EFFECT

SPEED

POWER

CLIMB

CONTROL

VIBRATION

LEVEL 1

Less than 10
knots loss

Less than
10 percent
increase
required

No effect,
or less
than 10
percent
loss

No effect

No effect

LEVEL 2

10-19 knots
loss

10 percent-
19 percent
increase
required

10
percent-
19 percent
loss in rate
of climb

No effect

No effect

LEVEL 3

20-39 knots
loss

20
percent-
39 percent
increase
required

20 percent
or more
loss in rate
of climb

Usually slow
or sensitive
response
from control
input

Controls
may have
slight
vibration

LEVEL 4

40 or more
knots loss

Not able to
maintain
speed

Not able
to climb

Little or no
response to
control input

May have
intense
buffet and/
or vibration

QUANTIFYING THE EFFECTS of the four traditional icing intensity levels can be tricky. Different airplanes experience icing in different ways, depending on their designs. But a
1998 FAA workshop on icing came up with this table that provides useful guidance on
performance degradations at various icing levels. The "aircraft effect" levels correspond
to trace, light, moderate, and severe icing accretions-the nomenclature used in airmets,
pireps, and other aviation icing forecast and analysis products.

at an alternate airport. You want to lose
ice as you descend and maneuver for the
landing-not pick more up. But you have
a good idea of cloud tops and bases from
your preflight briefing, right?
There are two other items to think
about: flight into known icing (FIKI) certification, and tailplane stalls. Having
inflatable deice boots, propeller heat,
windshield heat, and even bleed airheated leading edges does not constitute
blanket inoculation against icing's adverse
effects. This equipment makes for nice
tactical avoidance tools, but mill around
in light icing conditions long enough,
and it can reach severe status. SLD conditions can make even large, powerful,
well-quipped, and icing-certified airplanes-like the Roselawn ATR-behave
unpredictably, and stall.
As for tailplane stalls, remember that
horizontal stabilizers and stabilators have
leading edges, too. And their surfaces
produce lift-in a downward direction.
When they ice up and stall, they lose
their downward lift vector, making the
tail rise uncontrollably, and pitching the
92 | AOPA PILOT December 2020

A climb or descent
of as little as 1,000 or
2,000 feet can take you
out of an icing zone, if
conditions permit.
nose downward. Having flaps extended
increases the stabilizers' angles of attack,
so the chances of a tail stall are greatest
when on final, low to the ground, when
the last increment of flaps is selected.
That's one reason to land an iced-up airplane with a limited flap extension.
All this is a lot to ponder. Risking a
flight in icing conditions presents a lot
of traps-and provides a lot of fodder to
contemplate many potential links in an
accident chain. This is best done on the
ground.
AOPA
EMAIL tom.horne@aopa.org


http://www.AOPA.org/creditcard http://www.AOPA.org/creditcard

AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020

Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - Intro
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - Cover1
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - Cover2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 4
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 5
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 6
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 7
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 8
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 9
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 10
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 11
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 12
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 13
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 14
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 15
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 16
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 17
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 18
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 19
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 20
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 21
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 22
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 23
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 24
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 25
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 26
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 27
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 28
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 29
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 30
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 31
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 32
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 33
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 34
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 35
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 36
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 37
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 38
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 39
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 40
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 41
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 42
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 43
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 44
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 45
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 46
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 47
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 48
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 49
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 50
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 51
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 52
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 53
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 54
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 55
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 56
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 57
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 58
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 59
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 60
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 61
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 62
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 63
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 64
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 65
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 66
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 67
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 68
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 69
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 70
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 71
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 72
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 73
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 74
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 75
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 76
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 77
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 78
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 79
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AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 81
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AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 89
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 90
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 91
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 92
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 93
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 94
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 95
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 96
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 97
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 98
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 99
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 100
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 101
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AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 103
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 104
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AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 110
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 111
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - 112
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - Cover3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - December 2020 - Cover4
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