AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - 96

P&E 

PROFICIENCY

A 'preflight
checklist'
Do you need that for your flight?
Check the kinds of operation equipment list
B Y M I C H A E L J. B A N N E R

for Cessna 172S NAV III and Cessna 182T
NAV III (G1000) airplanes see Section 2,
Operating Limitations, of the airplanes' POH.
Airman certification standards (ACS) for the
private and commercial pilot certificates
state that pilots should be knowledgeable of
the KOEL for aircraft airworthiness reasons.
Although not included as part of a manufacturer's commonly used checklist for flight
operations, the KOEL should be considered
as an additional " preflight checklist " of functional equipment that needs to be reviewed
by the PIC prior to flight.
KOEL FOR CERTAIN AIRPLANES

Many late-model airplanes have a KOEL
within the POH. Other airplanes do not, for
example, Cessna 172P; Cessna 182P, -Q, and
-R models; Cessna U206 G (Stationair); and
Piper Archer. As stated in the POHs for many
of these airplanes: " FAR Part 91 establishes
the minimum required instrumentation and
equipment " for airworthiness for the above
four flight conditions. For airplanes without
a KOEL, the PIC must abide by equipment
requirements as stated in the following
FARs: 91.205 (instruments required for
VFR and IFR day and night flight); 91.207
(ELT operational requirements); 91.215
(airspace transponder requirements) and
91.225 (ADS-B operations).
FLIGHT SAFETY AND RISK MANAGEMENT

96 | AOPA PILOT May 2021

In my experience as a flight instructor many pilots seem unaware of the KOEL
concept: They do not understand the list's
operational significance; do not know
what the list specifies; do not know where
the list is located; and do not know how to
use it. FAA Advisory Circular 91-67 states
a KOEL specifies required equipment for
airplane airworthiness for four flight conditions: VFR day, VFR night, IFR day, and
IFR night. Federal Aviation Regulation 91.7
states: " No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. "
Further, this regulation designates the PIC
as being responsible for determining the airworthiness of an aircraft. The KOEL is found
in the airplane's pilot's operating handbook
(POH)/information manual-for example,

GROUNDED BY KOEL

If during the preflight inspection a
required piece of equipment as stated in

LEIGH CAULFIELD

YOU ARE PLANNING TO FLY a Cessna 172S
NAV III (Garmin G1000) airplane during
the day under visual flight rules (VFR). Prior
to takeoff you find that all flight instruments
on the primary flight display (PFD) are
operational; however, the standby attitude
indicator and standby altimeter are inoperative/inaccurate. Is the airplane airworthy
for the VFR day flight? Is it airworthy for an
instrument flight rules (IFR) day or night
flight? The answers to these questions fall
within the purview of the kinds of operation equipment list (KOEL). This list is not
to be confused with a minimum equipment
list (MEL), a list of instruments, equipment,
and procedures that allows an aircraft to be
operated under specific conditions with
inoperative equipment.

The KOEL is also important for flight safety
and risk management reasons. Flight safety
is promoted by having the requisite equipment for specific flight conditions, like
particular flight instruments and lighting
systems needed for IFR flight, for example.
Basic risk management involves identifying hazards (sources of danger) by using
the PAVE model (pilot, aircraft, environment, and external pressure) followed by
assessing the risk level associated with each
hazard (high, medium, and low) and then
mitigating high level risks by applying controls. Potential flight risks involving aircraft
equipment functionality can be mitigated by
having an appropriately equipped and airworthy aircraft as specified by the KOEL.



AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021

Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - Intro
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - Cover1
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - Cover2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - 2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - 3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - 4
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - 5
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - 6
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - 7
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AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - Cover3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - May 2021 - Cover4
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