AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 91

L
FINALLY!
A CARD
FOR PILOTS.
α = 4∘
wing area = 100 ft2
αt = − 1.82∘
tail area = 20 ft2
1 ft
W
SIDEBAR: ANGLE OF ATTACK STABILITY
Angle of attack
11 ft
T
Consider a simplified, conventional aircraft configuration in which the CG is in front of the center of lift for
the wing. During level, unaccelerated flight L = W+ T ; that is, the wing must generate enough lift to account for the weight of the aircraft as well as the tail
down force that is required to make the aircraft balance. For that balance to occur, 1 ⋅ L = 11 ⋅ T and since the aircraft weighs W = 2000 pounds, there
must be T = 200 pounds of tail down force generated. The wings must then create L = 2200 pounds of lift or 1.1 times its weight.
The lift created by a wing (or tail) is equal to q ⋅ area ⋅ angle of attack where is dynamic pressure. Because the ratio of lift created by the wing to the
downward lift of the tail is equal to 11 , we see that L /T = 11 = (wing area × α)/(tail area × |αt | ) . Assuming that the wing flies at an angle of attack of 4∘
then we can solve to find that the tail angle of attack must be αt = − 1.82 .
stability /
How airplanes find their balance
q
area × a)/(q × tail area × | at
Now assume that a gust of wind increases the angle of attack of both the wing and tail angles of attack by . The counterclockwise moment about the CG
generated by the wing is
lowers both angles of attack. You can check to see that raising the angles of attack by any amount will result in such a nose-down moment. On the other
hand, if a gust of wind lowers both angles of attack, the clockwise moment created by the tail is greater than the counterclockwise moment of the wing and the
net clockwise pitching moment increases both angles of attack. This stability is enhanced with the center of gravity at its forward limit.
the wing flies at an angle of attack of 4
degrees then we can solve to find that
the tail angle of attack must be at
1∘
500 ft lbs and the clockwise moment generated by the tail is only 180 ft lbs . The net effect is a nose-down pitching moment that
Consider a simplified, conventional
aircraft configuration in which the
center of gravity is in front of the
center of lift for the wing. During level,
unaccelerated flight L = W + T; that is,
the wing must generate enough lift to
account for the weight of the aircraft
as well as the tail down force that is
required to make the aircraft balance.
For that balance to occur, 1 × L = 11
× T and since the aircraft weighs W =
2,000 pounds, there must be T = 200
pounds of tail down force generated.
The wings must then create L = 2,200
pounds of lift or 1.1 times its weight.
The lift created by a wing (or tail)
is equal to q * area * angle of attack
where q is dynamic pressure. Because
the ratio of lift created by the wing to
the downward lift of the tail is equal
to 11, we see that L/T = 11 = (q × wing
Let's return to the pilot landing in
gusty conditions. Using a higher approach
speed than necessary, the landing will
require both more time and distance. And
pulling back too much in the flare starts
the ballooning process. If the attendant
phugoid oscillation is stable, the aircraft
will tend to return to its trim condition
without any help. So, a nervous pilot
who pushes forward likely exacerbates
the oscillation instead of helping it settle
= -1.82.
Now assume that a gust of wind
increases the angle of attack of both
the wing and tail by 1 degree. The
counterclockwise moment about the
CG generated by the wing is 500q
foot-pounds and the clockwise moment
generated by the tail is only 180q footpounds.
The net effect is a nose-down
pitching moment that lowers both
angles of attack. You can check to see
that raising the angles of attack by any
amount will result in such a nose-down
moment. On the other hand, if a gust of
wind lowers both angles of attack, the
clockwise moment created by the tail
is greater than the counterclockwise
moment of the wing and the net
clockwise pitching moment increases
both angles of attack. This stability is
enhanced with the center of gravity at its
forward limit. -CC
and thereby gets out of phase with the
aircraft. It's awfully easy to do.
Instead of pushing while the nose is
high and pulling when it's low, an optimal
technique would involve pulling on
the yoke when the nose is falling through
its equilibrium position and pushing
when the nose rises through equilibrium.
But let's face it, with the ground in
close proximity, how many of us would
get that exactly right without impacting
AOPA PILOT / August 2021
91
|). Assuming
2%
Cash Back1
on
purchases at FBOs
& Flight Schools2-3
on purchases of
and
Aviation & Auto Fuel2-3
A CASH BACK1
REDEMPTION IS APPLIED AS A STATEMENT CREDIT.
QUARTERLY BONUS POINT CAP OF 2,500 POINTS
Visit
AOPA.org/creditcard
to learn more.
*Certain points and purchases restrictions apply, see full Rewards
Terms and Conditions for full details at AOPA.org/creditcard.
1. Rewards points can be redeemed for Cash Back or other items provided
through AOPA Pilot Rewards. A Cash Back redemption is applied
as a statement credit. The statement credit will reduce your balance
but you are still required to make at least your minimum payment. A
minimum of 2,500 points is needed to redeem for Cash Back. Values
for non-cash back redemption items such as merchandise, gift cards,
and travel may vary. 2. Please note that merchants self-select the category
in which transactions will be listed and some merchants may be
owned by other companies, therefore transactions may not be counted
in the category you might expect. Purchases made using Near Field
Communication (NFC), virtual wallets, or similar technology may not
be eligible for bonus points. 3.You will earn 4% Cash Back (1 regular
point + 3 bonus points = 4%) for every $1 of Net Merchandise Purchases
on select AOPA purchases, 3% Cash Back (1 regular point + 2 bonus
points = 3%) for every $1 of Net Merchandise Purchases made at select
AOPA partners, 2% Cash Back (1 regular point + 1 bonus points = 2%)
for every $1 of Net Merchandise Purchases made at FBOs (fixed based
operators), aviation and auto fuel, and flight schools, and 1% Cash
Back (or 1 point) for every $1 of other Net Merchandise Purchases. For
example, if you spend $100, you will earn 100 points which is equal to
$1 in Cash Back rewards. A maximum of 2,500 bonus points will be
awarded per calendar quarter, per rewards account. Please allow up
to five business days after the transaction posts to your account for
bonus points to be awarded.
CATHERINE CAVAGNARO
http://www.AOPA.org/creditcard http://www.AOPA.org/creditcard

AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021

Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - Intro
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - BB1
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - BB2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - Cover1
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - Cover2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - Contents
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 2
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 4
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 5
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 6
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 7
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 8
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 9
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 10
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 11
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 12
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 13
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 14
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 15
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 16
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 17
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 18
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 19
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 20
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 21
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 22
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 23
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 24
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 25
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 26
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 27
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 28
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 29
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 30
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 31
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 32
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 33
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 34
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 35
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 36
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 37
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 38
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 39
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 40
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 41
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 42
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 43
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 44
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 45
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 46
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 47
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 48
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 49
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 50
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 51
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 52
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 53
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 54
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 55
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 56
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 57
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 58
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 59
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 60
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 61
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 62
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 63
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 64
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 65
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 66
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 67
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 68
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 69
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 70
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 71
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 72
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 73
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 74
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 75
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 76
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 77
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 78
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 79
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 80
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 81
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 82
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 83
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 84
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 85
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 86
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 87
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 88
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 89
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 90
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 91
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 92
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 93
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 94
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 95
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 96
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 97
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 98
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 99
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 100
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 101
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 102
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 103
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 104
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 105
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 106
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 107
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 108
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 109
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 110
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 111
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - 112
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - Cover3
AOPA Pilot Magazine - August 2021 - Cover4
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