Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 34

Iklaina, he came upon the remains of a structure with massive walls, surrounded by large deposits of pottery. The Iklaina site was overgrown with olive groves and the terrain was difficult to traverse, but a brief trial excavation suggested the existence of an important site. However, other work beckoned Marinatos and it would remain buried for decades.

W

HEN ARCHAEOLOGIST Michael Cosmopoulos of the University of Missouri–St. Louis arrived in Iklaina in 1998 he had an ambitious plan. Cosmopoulos had previously directed archaeological projects at Oropos, an ancient city-state near Athens, and at Eleusis, the Sanctuary of Demeter and home of the famous Eleusinian Mysteries. After learning from his colleague George Korres of the University of Athens about the promising site in the hills above Pylos, he jumped at the opportunity to pick up where Marinatos had left off. Soon he had organized a team of students and volunteers whose field survey eventually investigated more than eight square miles. Cosmopoulos combined his results with a survey done previously by the University of Cincinnati—the Pylos Regional Archaeological Project—which had mapped the region around the Palace of Nestor in the early 1990s. Cosmopoulos also conducted an exhaustive geophysical survey, using magnetometry, electrical resistivity, and soil phosphate analysis. It took 400 students, volunteers, and staff eight years to determine that Iklaina was the largest site in the region outside the Palace of Nestor.

sort of bottom-up approach. Scholars know that the state of Pylos had a four-tiered administrative system: the palace at the top, followed by the district capitals (the second-order settlements), then followed by small villages, and at the bottom by farmsteads. At Iklaina, Cosmopoulos wanted to see how ordinary people lived outside the palaces, in the towns and villages of the lower tiers, how their society changed over time, and how government operated there. “Kinship systems and elite groups are thought to have propelled power chiefdoms to statehood,” Cosmopoulos explains. “If such groups existed at a second-order center such as Iklaina, we would expect appropriate architectural remains.” It was, however, not just the promise of archaeological remains that drew Cosmopoulos to this plateau, which rises 525 feet above the Messenian plain. There were also clues from clay tablets discovered at the Palace of Nestor that date to around 1200 B.C. Inscribed in the ancient Greek script known as Linear B (see sidebar), these tablets suggest that Iklaina may have been one of the district capitals of the Mycenaean kingdom of Pylos. The more than 1,000 tablets found at the Palace of Nestor are not works of literature, but rather are records of a bureaucratic system, primarily economic in nature, with lists of animals, people, and manufactured items. The tablets also give us valuable information about the administration of the state of Pylos. They tell us that it was divided into two provinces: the “Hither” and the “Further” provinces, and that each province was divided into districts—the Hither into nine and the Further into seven. Archaeologists believe that Iklaina may have been one of the nine districts of the Hither Province, whose name may have been pronounced something like alphy, aphy, or asphy. Interestingly, a corrupt form of this name may have survived in Homer’s Iliad as “Aipy.” As Cosmopoulos explains, “We have here a rare circumstance where archaeology converges with textual evidence and possibly mythology.”

A
Iklaina excavation director Michael Cosmopoulos excavating in one of the settlement’s houses with the assistance of some of the students and volunteers who have worked with the project for more than a decade.

From Cosmopoulos’ standpoint, excavating at Iklaina provided an important opportunity to take an in-depth look at the evidence from a whole district and to examine Mycenaean society and government not from the point of view of the main palace, as had been done in the past, but from its districts—a
34

COSMOPOULOS received his permit from the Athens Archaeological Society, he and his team prepared to excavate—but not before receiving the blessing of the local priest who had instructed him where to begin digging. “Within four inches we started finding walls and pots,” he says. “We joked about divine intervention helping us out.” Cosmopoulos began digging test trenches in 2006, and a full-scale excavation got under way in 2008. At that time, says Cosmopoulos, “the dominant feature of the site was a mound, overgrown with a jungle of bushes and trees and thickets of grass.” Visible on the surface around the mound were segments of ancient walls, which he anticipated might be hiding a large tomb. “It took four workmen working full time for four weeks to remove the thick vegetation,” Cosmopoulos remembers. Once the overgrowth was cleared and the team was able to start excavating the mound, instead of a tomb, they found a giant “Cyclopean” wall, typical of Mycenaean architecture. This type of construction, named Cyclopean because later Greeks thought that only the mythical giant known as the Cyclops could have built such huge walls, is made of massive blocks of roughly
S SOON AS

ARCHAEOLOGY • July/August 2012



Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012

Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012
Contents
Editor’s Letter
From the President
Letters
From the Trenches
World Roundup
London 2012
Tomb of the Chantress
The Birth of Bureaucracy
Automated Site Mapping
Vasa’s Curious Imbalance
Uncovering Sidon’s Long Life
Letter from Mexico
Artifact
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Cover2
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 1
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 2
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Contents
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 4
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 5
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Editor’s Letter
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 7
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - From the President
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 9
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Letters
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - From the Trenches
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 12
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 13
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 14
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 15
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 16
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 17
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 18
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 19
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 20
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 21
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - World Roundup
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 23
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - London 2012
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 25
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 26
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 27
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Tomb of the Chantress
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 29
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 30
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 31
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 32
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - The Birth of Bureaucracy
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 34
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 35
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 36
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 37
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 38
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 39
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Automated Site Mapping
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 41
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Vasa’s Curious Imbalance
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 43
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 44
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 45
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Uncovering Sidon’s Long Life
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 47
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 48
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 49
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 50
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 51
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 52
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Letter from Mexico
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 54
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 55
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 56
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 57
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 58
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 59
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 60
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 61
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 62
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 63
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 64
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 65
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 66
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - 67
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Artifact
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Cover3
Archaeology Magazine - July/August 2012 - Cover4
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