ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 105

clear state. The range of typical products is from 62% visible light transmission when clear to 3.5% transmission in the fully tinted state. Glass of this composition provided by the leading developer2 is typically fabricated into industry standard insulating units (IGUs) and installed in frames supplied by the developer, its partners or independent suppliers. The IGUs are operated by a control system,which can range from manual adjustment of a single window to a whole-building automation system. The electricity needed to power and control 1,500 ft2 (140 m2) of glass (approx. 100 windows) is less per day than a single 60 W light bulb, and no power is consumed at all when the glass is kept in the fully clear state. Metal oxide electrochromic glass was developed with funding from federal government grants and has benefited from testing by several government laboratories. Indications are that electrochromic glass of this type has good durability and can be cycled from clear to tinted more than 100,000 times without loss of functionality. A study published by ASHRAE in 1997 based on the electrochromic glass available at the time found that smart windows installed in a heating-dominated environment would increase solar heat gain compared to standard windows, thereby reducing heating costs in winter and cooling costs in summer. In a coolingdominated environment, smart windows significantly reduce heat gain and the energy demands of cooling. Lighting costs also are reduced under all conditions.3 A performance characteristic of this electrochromic glass that may limit its broad adoption is switching speed. The transition from clear to opaque takes three to five minutes for a small window and the darkening proceeds from the edges to the center of the glass over that period of time. Larger windows and/or lower temperatures take longer. Because of the time needed to tint the glass, the standard use is to control the system for just two states: clear and fully tinted. In the future, intermediate levels of tinting may be offered. However, fast responses to such short-term changes as clouds moving over the sun are not possible with this technology and user (or July 2009 control system) real-time fine-tuning of the amount of light entering the room is limited by the long delay in the response of the window. Suspended Particle Device (SPD) Technology SPD glass consists of two panes of glass (or transparent plastic) with conductive coatings on the inside surfaces. A www.info.hotims.com/25206-11 ASHRAE Journal 105

ASHRAE Journal - July 2009

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - July 2009

ASHRAE Journal - July 2009
Contents
Commentary
Industry News
Letters
Meetings and Shows
Feature Articles
     Using Direct Evaporative and Chilled Water Cooling
     Solving Kitchen Ventilation Problems
     Case Against Balancing Valves
     Integrated Design and UFAD
     Anniversary Feature: System Design for Compressor Reliability
Building Sciences
     Sustainable Products Capabilities
Special Products Information Section
Emerging Technologies
Washington Report
Products
People
Special Products
Classified Advertising
Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - ASHRAE Journal - July 2009
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 2
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Commentary
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Industry News
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Letters
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Meetings and Shows
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 -      Using Direct Evaporative and Chilled Water Cooling
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 -      Solving Kitchen Ventilation Problems
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 -      Case Against Balancing Valves
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 -      Integrated Design and UFAD
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - BRC1
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - BRC2
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ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 -      Anniversary Feature: System Design for Compressor Reliability
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ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 45
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ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Building Sciences
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ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Special Products Information Section
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ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 101
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 102
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 103
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Emerging Technologies
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 105
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 106
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 107
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Washington Report
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Products
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - People
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 111
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Special Products
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 113
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 114
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 115
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 116
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Classified Advertising
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 118
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - 119
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Advertisers Index
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - July 2009 - Cover4
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