ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 22

TECHNICAL FEATURE

to be fair. Is it better for a building
TABLE 7 zEPI comparison for test cases for the medium office prototype in ASHRAE Climate Zone 3A with process load density of 0.25, 1, and 5 W/ft2. 6
to have a higher EUI, due to high
 
90.1-04
90.1-10
90.1-13
90.1-16
189.1-2014
2012
2015
occupant density, than one that has
DOE
BPF
BPF
BPF
OPT A
IGCC
IGCC
an artificially low EUI due to limzEPI
75
57
52
48
40
51
50
ited occupancy? The PEI factor may
2
70
55
48
46
37
49
47
Medium Office: 0.25 W/ft
be a way to adapt EUIs for a range of
2
94
79
73
70
55
71
70
Medium Office: 1 W/ft
process load intensity, which could
2
248
226
217
213
165
202
209
Medium
Office:
5
W/ft
also eventually address ventilation
rate variation. The worst outcome
of an outcome-based compliance pathway would be
Conclusion
This study presents pre-computed data that can be reffor occupants to reduce energy use at the detriment of
erenced by design and operations teams for benchmarkproductivity, through reduced ventilation, reduction
ing. The use of the PEI metric shows potential for unreguin compliance with ASHRAE Standard 55 for thermal
lated load optimization across climate zones and building
comfort, or through the elimination of specialized
types, when used in a complementary fashion to the EUI
equipment.
metric. We are considering additional sensitivity analyApplication
ses for office buildings, to inform its implementation in
PEI is applicable across the full building life-cycle,
outcome-based energy code compliance pathways.
including planning, design, commissioning, and operaAcknowledgment
tion phases.
Special thanks to the District of Columbia Department
* Planning: a PEI target can be set using the pre-comof Energy and Environment for its work on adoption of
puted values presented in Table 1. The PEI target would
the International Green Construction Code and an outbe less than these values.
come-based code compliance pathway. Their leadership
* Design: PEI may be easily calculated from whole
was a major inspiration for this research.
building energy simulation results and viewed in conjunction with EUI, either alone or as a multiplier (PEI ×
EUI = EI). An increasingly low PEI × EUI value represents References
1. Chang, R. 2014. "Landmark resurrection." High-Performing Buildings.
a design that has been optimized for both regulated and
2. Avelar, V., Azevedo, D., French, A. 2012. "PUE: a
comprehensive examination of the metric." The Green Grid.
unregulated energy.
3. Chang, R. 2016. "Energy utilization effectiveness (EUE): a
* Commissioning/operations: tracking real-time PEI
new metric for commercial building energy use characterization."
may allow optimization of system operation for imASHRAE Winter Conference.
4. Sarfraz, O., C. Bach, C. Wilkins. 2018. "Plug load design
proved part-load performance. Development of a meterfactors." ASHRAE Journal (1).
ing strategy early in design is critical. Electrical system
5. Lobato, C., S. Pless, M. Sheppy, P. Torcellini. 2011. "Reducing
design should consider how loads are best grouped to
plug and process loads for a large scale, low energy office building."
ASHRAE Winter Conference.
simplify metering at panelboards. Non-intrusive load
6. Rosenberg, M., Hart R., Developing Performance Cost Targets
9
monitoring (NILM) methodologies can further provide
for ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G - Performance Rating
a mechanism to capture process loads.
Method, PNNL-25202, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
Richland, Washington, February 2016.
* Outcome-based code frameworks: a building's
7. Chang, R. 2017. "Impact of Process Load on Commercial Office
target EUI may be viewed in conjunction with PEI, where Energy Performance." ASHRAE Building Performance Analysis
measured process load energy × PEI can be used to set
Conference (Seminar 9).
8. New Buildings Institute, https://newbuildings.org/code_
adjusted EUI targets.
policy/zepi/, 2018.
* Airflow-driven building types: building types, such
9. Baechler, MC, H Hao. 2016. "Business case for nonintrusive load
as hospitals, restaurants, and laboratories may still utimonitoring." PNNL- 25425, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 
lize the PEI methodology as an additional benchmarkBibliography
ing point. Additional research on an index adapted to
Zhao, J, Yun, R., Lasternas, B., Wang, H., Lam, K.P., Aziz, A.,
process airflow requirements beyond ASHRAE Standard Loftness, V., Occupant Behavior and Schedule Prediction Based on
Office Appliance Energy Consumption Data Mining, CISBAT, 2013.
62.1 requirements, may be beneficial.
22

ASHRAE JOURNAL

ashrae.org

N O V E M B E R 2 0 19


https://www.newbuildings.org/code_policy/zepi/ https://www.newbuildings.org/code_policy/zepi/

ASHRAE Journal - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - November 2019

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 6
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 64
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 66
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 74
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 82
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 84
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 86
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 88
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_VJKSRY
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_SDHUTC
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_JPPKRR
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_SDLTTH
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_CKLLES
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_SLDOX
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_HJETUK
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_OLUHGE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2020october
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2020october_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_ZERDGH
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_QVMNEO
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_RTPOKE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_BBATRE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_STUBMW
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_TPEMPE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_JNMKDS
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_FBTTPA
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_WQMMNE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_TVBRYN
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_showguide2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_KTUZMA
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_ABEDGD
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2019septmeber_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2019september
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2019april
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2019march
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_showguide2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2018december
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2018november
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2018fall_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2018fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2018october
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraemexico_2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraeinsights_201806
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201805
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201803
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2017fall_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2017fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201705
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashrae_meetinginsert_201610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2016fall_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2016fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_acrexindia
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2015summer_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2015summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/amca/2014summer2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/amca/2014summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_acma_2014summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_acmasupp_2013fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201305
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201303
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2013winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/achr_expo_mexico2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201208_v3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201208_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2012summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2012winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201111_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201109_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2011summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201103
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com