ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 32

TECHNICAL FEATURE

adverse impacts to the environment and wildlife during
installation and operation. In the U.S. facilities that
draw more than 2 million gallons of water per day
are required to follow the Environmental Protection
Agency's rules in Section 316(b) of the Clean Water Act
that regulate the design and operation of intakes of
cooling water.9 Designers of systems in the U.S. should
be familiar with these regulations, as well as researching
any others at the state and local level.
For rivers, risks of sandbars, century-low river flows
and other dangers should be considered to determine
whether mitigation strategies would be warranted.
Although low river levels occur far less often than
earthquakes, tornadoes or other disasters, each hazard
should be examined thoroughly.
In general, lakes pose less risk than rivers since the
water flow, temperature, and shifting from flooding is
much less likely.
Ocean water cooling systems must be designed
to withstand forces from waves, currents, and any
anticipated maritime and seismic activity. Underground

tunneling may be considered to avoid wave and current
forces and disturbance by others in the shore crossing
zone. While these risks require a careful design,
there are several long-standing systems in some of
the toughest ocean environments, that have been in
continuous operation for decades.
The risk of pipe failure, although similar in possibility
to failures of a traditional piping systems, may require
additional time and resources to locate and fix or
replace. When operating a data center, consideration
for other means of redundancy may be needed, such as
connection points for temporary cooling systems.

Conclusion
The energy and operational cost savings of using
river, lake and ocean cooling systems are significantly
large enough to make them an attractive alternative
to conventional cooling systems. The viability of using
these natural resources must be evaluated on a site-bysite basis. With projected electrical price volatility and
increases and grid reliability concerns, leveraging local
resources to save energy, water, and cost for cooling is
becoming a viable option for many new and upgrade
projects. For data centers, which are quickly becoming
the next large industrial-type expansion, river, lake
and ocean cooling should be thought about early in the
site selection process as a means to avoid the growing
concerns about energy and water volatility.

References
1. ASHRAE Technical Committee 9.09. 2018. IT Equipment Power
Trends, 3rd Edition.
2. ASHRAE Technical Committee 9.09. 2013. Liquid Cooling
Guidelines for Datacom Equipment Centers.
3. EPA. 2015. "Federal Regulation for Water Quality Standards."
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
4. ASHRAE Technical Committee 9.09. 2011. Thermal Guidelines for
Liquid Cooled Data Processing Environments.
5. Enwave Energy Corporation. 2013. "District Cooling System."
Enwave Services. http://enwavetoronto.com.
6. Engineering Timelines. 2018. "Hongkong & Shanghai Bank
Headquarters." http://www.engineering-timelines.com/scripts/
engineeringItem.asp?id=1445.
7. Cornell University. 2016. "Lake Source Cooling." Facilities and
Campus Services. https://fcs.cornell.edu/content/lake-sourcecooling.
8. Google. 2015. "Hamina, Finland." https://www.google.com/
about/datacenters/inside/locations/hamina/.
9. EPA. 2014. "Clean Water Act." Section 316(b): Cooling Water
Intake Structures. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
10. Hartman, T. 2001. "All-Variable Speed Centrifugal Chiller
Plants." ASHRAE Journal, 43(9):43-51.

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http://www.driamerica.com http://www.enwavetoronto.com http://www.engineering-timelines.com/scripts/engineeringItem.asp?id=1445 http://www.engineering-timelines.com/scripts/engineeringItem.asp?id=1445 https://fcs.cornell.edu/content/lake-source-cooling https://fcs.cornell.edu/content/lake-source-cooling https://www.google.com/about/datacenters/inside/locations/hamina/ https://www.google.com/about/datacenters/inside/locations/hamina/

ASHRAE Journal - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - November 2019

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 6
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 57
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ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 61
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ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 73
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ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover4
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