ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 49

ASHRAE - CELEBRATING 125 YEARS

TABLE 1 Cleanroom standards timeline.
1960s

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

2010s

U.S. Air Force TO 00-25-203
US-MIL-STD-1246
Federal Standard 209
Federal Standard 209A

Federal Standard 209B
Australian AS 1386
British BS 5295
Japan JIS B 9920
France AFNOR 44101
Germany VDI 2083:3
Holland VCCN 1

Federal Standard 209C
Federal Standard 209D

Federal Standard 209E
ISO 14644-1 (1999)
ISO 14644-2 (1999)

ISO 14644-3
ISO 14644-4
ISO 14644-5
ISO 14644-6
ISO 14644-7
ISO 14644-8
ISO 14644-9

ISO 14644-1 (2015)
ISO 14644-2 (2015)
ISO 14644-10
ISO 14644-12
ISO 14644-13
ISO 14644-14
ISO 14644-15
ISO 14644-16
ISO 14644-17

did you define "uniform"? There was
a need to have repeatability and cost
control when procuring cleanrooms
from various suppliers.
To help with procurement of its
cleanrooms, in 1961 the U.S. Air
Force issued Air Force Technical
Order 00-25-203, Standard Functional
Criteria for The Design and Operation
of Clean Rooms. This is considered
the first widely accepted cleanroom standard. TO 00-25-203
specified 4 cleanroom levels from
1 to 4.5 The Air Force was in the
process of updating U.S. Air Force
Technical Order 00-25-203 when
the announcement of Whitfield's
"laminar flow" cleanroom indicated cleaner cleanrooms could be
achieved using Whitfield's design.
There was much excitement from
government agencies and industries seeking to publish their own
cleanroom standards.20 By 1963, the
lack of a set of cleanroom standards
was evident, and in April 1963 a
major cleanroom conference was
announced, to be hosted by Sandia
Laboratories in Albuquerque, New
Mexico.
A working group chaired by Mr.
J. Gordon King was formed, and
together they created the first
federal standard, titled Cleanroom
and Work Station Requirements,
Controlled Environments. It was

issued by the U.S. General Services
Administration (GSA) and assigned
the code FED-STD-209.19 During
1964, use of "laminar flow" devices
spread quickly with variants in both
vertical and horizontal cross flow
cleanrooms. The design was quickly
being applied into industry, medicine, NASA centers, the military, and
some use was noted in Europe. The
AEC was the owner of the Whitfield's
"Ultra-Clean Room" and freely
allowed others to use the design. The
Western Electric Co. in Allentown,
Pa., reported that it had installed
900 "laminar flow clean benches" by
the end of 1964, and RCA completed
a 20,000 ft2 (1859 m2) facility for
color CRT picture tubes.21,22
The increased reliance upon cleanroom standards for various applications warranted continued amending and updating of cleanroom standards. Many countries completely
adopted FED-STD-209, while others
made their own national version,
similar to FED-STD-209. Some made
minor changes to the classes to comply with the metric system. Federal
Standard 209, being used around
the world, was amended multiple
times (Table 1). The 209, 209A, 209B
(1973 and 1976 amended version)
identified only 4 cleanliness classes
similar to TO 00-25-203. Particle
sizes specified down to 0.5 µm were

included in the 209A,B documents.
A major revision was undertaken
with 209C (1987), with the addition of two more cleanliness classes,
Class 1 and Class 10. 209C allowed
interpretations of intermediate
class (e.g., Class 50), but not the
extrapolation of particle concentrations outside a set range for each
cleanliness classification. The inclusion of particle sizes down to 0.1 µm
was also added along with more
defined testing, sampling requirements and statistical analysis. The
term "laminar flow" was officially
replaced with unidirectional airflow
and non-laminar flow replaced by
nonunidirectional.
A minor revision of FED-STD209C was issued in version 209D
(1988), while the next major revision
was the last and final version 209E
(1992). FED-STD-209E introduced
a metric equivalent for cleanroom
classes, changes in sampling for
determination of class, the addition
of new cleanroom classifications (M
Classes) and conversion to SI units of
measure.
While the final versions of FEDSTD-209E were being published,
a group of international contamination control stakeholders
had already begun work on an
international standard to replace
all national standards. In 1992

N O V E M B E R 2 0 19

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ASHRAE Journal - November 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - November 2019

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - November 2019 - 6
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