ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 38

TECHNICAL FEATURE
ASHRAE Research Update
Lower GWP Refrigerants
Safety and reliable system designs are paramount in refrigerant applications.
Environmental concerns about the global warming impact of refrigerants have
led to development of new lower global warming potential (GWP) F-gases. Many
of these lower GWP refrigerants are flammable refrigerants, and the risks of using
flammable refrigerants have never been fully investigated. Lubricants' foaming
qualities have also not been recently evaluated even though they relate to optimal
system design. ASHRAE members have contributed to the research that closes
knowledge gaps and enables the use of these refrigerants and lubricants. This article
discusses two ASHRAE research projects in process and one tentative research
project.
RP-1806: Flammable Refrigerants Post-Ignition Simulation
And Risk Assessment Update
By Principal Investigator Scott Davis, Ph.D., P.E.
Understanding the severity and consequences of
potential ignition events with flammable refrigerants
requires costly built-up HVAC&R systems in a laboratory
with simulated leaks and ignitions to fully understand
risks. ASHRAE initiated research to focus on extending
ignition simulations tools to predicate the probability
of an ignition event, severity and consequences
when using flammable refrigerants in various types of
HVAC&R equipment. RP-1806, Flammable Refrigerants
Post-Ignition Simulation and Risk Assessment Update,
will allow for the assessment of the overall risks of
using flammable refrigerants in HVAC&R products by
simulation rather than costly laboratory experiments.
The project is nearly complete with the third phase
underway.
RP-1806's results will allow for the assessment of the
overall risks of using flammable refrigerants in HVAC&R
38
ASHRAE JOURNAL ashrae.org A U G UST 2021
products, considering both ignition event probability
and severity.
Phase 1 of the project validated an existing computational
fluid dynamics-based simulation code
against existing experimental combustion data, and,
as needed, modified or improved the CFD models to
accurately predict ignition and combustion events
involving Class 2L and Class 3 refrigerants. Phase 2
was a series of scenarios or cases that simulated ignition
and combustion events for several applications
and types of equipment. Phase 2 outputs looked at the
severity of the events by various relevant metrics, such
as the thermal exposure and the maximum pressure
that occurs during an event. Finally, Phase 3 is taking
the simulation results and updating the risk assessments
with the predicted severity data to give a total
picture of the risk.
In the first phase, researchers modeled various experiments
involving the ignition of flammable refrigerants.
The results from the simulations were compared to the
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ASHRAE Journal - August 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - August 2021

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 6
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 21
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ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 38
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ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Cover4
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