ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 39

TECHNICAL FEATURE
experimentally measured and observed results to evaluate
the performance of the CFD model. To ensure meaningful
interpretation, a model evaluation protocol was
applied to rank the relevance and applicability of each
experimental dataset for model validation purposes
and to assess the predicted results quantitatively and
qualitatively.
Phase 1 highlighted the lack of applicable experimental
datasets for validating how well the model predicted
non-premixed combustion events. Non-premixed combustion
events could occur based on various equipment
leak scenarios; therefore, additional work was required
to validate the CFD model . This validation involved
performing additional room-scale tests involving the
ignition of non-premixed layers near the fl oor to generate
applicable experimental data for further CFD model
validation .
The additional experiments provided high-quality
data for non-premixed combustion events involving
fl ammable refrigerants. These tests helped validate
the CFD models that will be used to predict event consequences,
which will then be used to determine the
risk . These experiments were correlated to models in
the CFD software, and several comparisons have been
made, including measured and predicted heat fl ux and
thermal exposure at various distances from the ignition
point, fl ame size and pressure rise. Understanding
these various risks experimentally and correlating
them to the model will help create appropriate guidance
in safety standards such as required mitigation
measures.
It became apparent that additional work in parallel
to assess the overall risk of fl ammable refrigerants in
refrigerated display applications was needed . This work
involved updating a previously published study that only
considered the probability of ignition events and not
the consequences of an ignition event. CFD simulations
were executed to predict the consequences of ignition
events, and this information was coupled with the existing
experimentally derived data to assess the overall risk
and help create appropriate mitigation measures for
safety standards.
The project investigators have identifi ed several
unique aspects associated with assessing the consequences
of ignition events involving mildly fl ammable
refrigerants and have formulated an effective
approach that will be applicable for assessing the
risk of fl ammable refrigerants in other HVAC&R
applications.
Overall, this project will provide an assessment of the
risks of using fl ammable refrigerants in different applications,
which will aid in the development of appropriate
safety standards for their safe use. The study will
also highlight the effectiveness of certain mitigation
measures and strategies for reducing the overall risk.
RP-1806 should wrap up later this year.
RP-1855: Determination of the Impact of Combustion
Byproducts on the Safe Use of Flammable Fluorinated
Refrigerants
By Steve Kujak, Member ASHRAE, Chair of SSPC 34
The purpose of RP-1855: Determination of the
Impact of Combustion By-products on the Safe Use of
Flammable Fluorinated Refrigerants, was to review
the potential for increased exposure risks associated
with using fl ammable fl uorinated refrigerants versus
nonfl ammable (no fl ame propagation) ASHRAE Class
1 refrigerants . Exposure to fl uorinated by-products
from the thermal breakdown of non-fl ammable
refrigerants have been few, as evidenced by only sporadic
case reports over the past 80 years. Obviously,
fl ammable fl uorinated refrigerants could potentially
have increased risks since they are combustible in
nature.
Exposure to fl uorocarbon combustion products, such
as hydrogen fl uoride (HF) and carbonyl fl uoride (COF2),
are possible as harmful fl uorinated breakdown products
from high temperature thermal events, even with nonfl
ammable fl uorocarbon refrigerants. Introducing fl ammable
fl uorocarbon refrigerants naturally would likely
increase the risks associated with handling fl ammable
fl uorocarbon refrigerants from manufacturing and
transporting, to design of equipment, to installation,
service and decommissioning products . The purpose of
this research was to review available literature on the
use of both nonfl ammable and fl ammable fl uorocarbon
refrigerant for exposure to thermal degradation or combustion
fl uorinated by-products, identify any knowledge
gaps and propose evaluations to close these knowledge
gaps.
It was understood there was little experience with
and knowledge of using fl ammable fl uorinated
refrigerants, so there was acknowledgment that
there may be the need for many studies to address
A U G U S T 2 0 2 1 ashrae.org ASHRAE JOURNAL
39
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ASHRAE Journal - August 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - August 2021

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 6
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 43
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ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 45
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ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - 49
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ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - August 2021 - Cover4
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