ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 30

ROUNDTABLE
thermal mass of the house. And again, we're thinking
differently than we always used to do. You always used
to say, " Let the house warm up during the day and cool
it down when you get there. " Now, it's going to be, " Use
your daytime solar to precool the house down before
the evening peak, turn off the AC and use thermal
mass, and you've got an electric battery available for
other loads. "
When you're talking about storage and applications,
you have to segment out what's going to work really well
with residential. I think I've just described it. You could
have some thermal in their active system, but no, it's
probably going to be more of a passive side of things. In
commercial buildings, just using an electric battery to
do everything makes no sense financially. That's a massive
amount of money that is going to be used to turn
electricity into meeting thermal needs. You should have
really stored the thermal energy.
Deru: One thing that we didn't talk about earlier with
the thermal storage is if you are going to make it cool
when you have available power, you can also downsize
your chiller system and make that cool and store it so
that you can meet the peaks later with that stored cooling
energy, so that's a big advantage. Scaling to small
systems would expand the market. We have excellent
larger thermal energy storage systems, but we don't have
smaller thermal energy storage systems that are widely
available. I think that's a barrier that we could see disappear
if we can develop a cost-effective, very robust system
for the smaller applications.
One other thing that we haven't talked about as a barrier
is that energy codes tend to penalize storage, especially
thermal energy storage. They don't reward having
that storage because they're based on EUI at the end of
the day. And, as we talked about, if you're just looking at
your site EUI, having that storage tends to increase your
EUI. We need to think about the energy codes and how
they treat storage and how they value storage in terms of
overall performance or however we want to categorize
that.
Lowe: I think there's a kind of practical barrier to
widespread implementation of energy storage, and I
think it's going to be safety, frankly. Lithium-ion chemistries
are inherently unstable and are still not allowed
to be installed in New York City, for example, for fire
code reasons. As the industry matures, the safety issue
is going to be playing a bigger role. And I think people
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ASHRAE JOURNAL ashrae.org J U LY 2021
are going to be smarter about where battery storage goes
and how it can be used. And so I just think that that's a
very important barrier to think about as well.
Mueller: The climate emergencies are now forcing
new ideas in the market, so now engineers and designers
need to update their knowledge base.
Narayanamurthy: Can ask a question? So where is
ASHRAE heading with Standard 90.1? I know there's a
" war " of sorts going on about integrating storage. With
Standard 90.1, Standard 189.1 and the codes area, how is
ASHRAE looking at this? Because I think, to Ben's point,
there's the safety issue, but also the issue of just acceptance.
In terms of energy code, that could really influence
how storage gets implemented in buildings, both
for new construction and any rehabs, retrofit, turnovers,
for example.
MacCracken: There is an energy storage subgroup
within SSPC 90.1 now that is trying to evaluate how to
credit buildings with storage. And, getting back to what
Michael mentioned a minute ago, I use an example
that, in his statement having to do with codes not
favoring thermal storage because of EUI on the site,
I like to explain to people that it takes hammers and
saws to build a house; hammers make terrible saws,
and saws make terrible hammers. If you apply that to
the energy field, let's look at VFDs and thermal storage.
VFDs are excellent at reducing kWh in a building. They
lower the speed down. They save a lot of kWh, but they
increase peak demand at full load. They draw about
103% or 105% of peak. So they're not good with peak
reduction, but they're really good with saving a lot of
energy.
Thermal storage, in general over the years, has been
excellent for reducing peak demand in buildings,
which is really what utilities have a problem with,
but it may or may not save site energy, and, usually,
it saves a lot of source energy. So it takes both of these
tools to tackle the problems we have in buildings, yet
as Michael clearly pointed out, the codes had never
looked at it that way.
Torcellini: I would like to circle back on some of the
cost discussion. We use storage today and don't always
think about it. A heat pump hot water heater, or an
electric resistance hot water heater tend to have tanks.
They are not instantaneous. If they were you would
need big equipment and a big wire. The normal solution
to that is we put in a hot water tank to reduce the
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ASHRAE Journal - July 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - July 2021

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 4
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ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 6
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