ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 57

COLUMN CYBERSECURITY
data. With that in mind, appliances being used can be
scrutinized to determine which cyber-hardening tools
could be used. Some of these tools, like the encapsulation
of data to be used at end node equipment via
encryption/decryption algorithms, can greatly increase
the robustness of data security and signifi cantly reduce
the chances of a successful cyberattack. Encapsulation
can in certain instances be expensive, both in funds
and time, and many other potential solutions exist; they
are beyond the scope of this column. An evaluation of
required rigor and resources should be made to determine
acceptable choices of appliances to use in combination
or outright for a good cybersecurity solution.
Some cyberattacks come by way of hardware disruption
to gain access to the target system. Firewalls are
available as software apps that run on systems that host
the data or as appliances that stand between the internet
and the protected equipment. Firewall devices can be
very simple but effective, or complex and feature rich.
The extent of equipment being protected and overall
throughput requirements will dictate where a fi rewall
will sit along the cost line. Properly sized uninterruptible
power sources and order of start-up and shutdown
sequences are critical for proper use of fi rewalls.
Studies have revealed an amazingly high number
of equipment exposures to cyberattack due to use of
default or poorly constructed login/password combinations.
This should not be the problem it currently is, as
it signals a casual approach to system security. Someone
that recognizes the importance of security should be
tasked with keeping systems secured. Employees should
be trained how to maintain login/password sequences.
Dated equipment often lacks suffi cient hardware, software
or fi rmware fl exibility to support security protocol
updates. This is a common exposure point for attack.
Where equipment updates or upgrades are cost-prohibitive,
stand-alone appliances can be considered for insertion
at communication connection points to provide
dedicated protection.
References
1. Ranger, S. 2019. " What is the IIoT? Everything You Need to
Know About the Industrial Internet of Things " ZDNet.com. https://
tinyurl.com/4p5bar7k
2. Trend Micro. 2021. " Cybercriminals. " Trend Micro. https://
tinyurl.com/26hhztpa
3. OASIS. 2021. " OASIS Open. " Organization for the
Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS)
https://www.oasis-open.org/
Terminology
Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), an evolution of
a distributed control system (DCS) that allows for a
higher degree of automation by using cloud computing
to refi ne and optimize the process controls.
Organization for the Advancement of Structured
Information Standards (OASIS), a global nonprofi t
consortium that works on the development, convergence
and adoption of open standards for cybersecurity,
blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT), emergency
management, cloud computing, legal data exchange,
energy, content technologies and other areas.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model, a
widely used conceptual framework that describes the
functions of a networking system.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), an application
layer protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia
information systems.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), a common
protocol that provides reliable, ordered and errorchecked
delivery of a stream of octets (bytes) between
applications running on computing hosts communicating
via an IP network.
Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT), a
lightweight publish-subscribe protocol to transport
messages between devices.
Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), a specialized
protocol for use on constrained network devices,
e.g., low-power, lossy networks.
Data Distribution Service Interoperability-Realtime
Publish-Subscribe Wire (DDSI-RTPS), a protocol
for machine-to-machine data exchange using a
publish-subscribe pattern.
4. Geeks for Geeks. 2020. " Layers of OSI Model. " GeeksforGeeks.
org. https://tinyurl.com/ybvj4jds
5. MDN Web Docs. 2021. " An Overview of HTTP. " MDN Web Docs.
https://tinyurl.com/pt6zxnax
6. Lutkevich, B. 2020. " TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). "
TechTarget Network. https://tinyurl.com/86833n7x
7. MQTT. 2020. " MQTT: The Standard for IoT Messaging. " MQTT.
org. https://mqtt.org
8. CoAP. 2016. " RFC 7252 Constrained Application Protocol. "
CoAP.Technology. https://coap.technology/
9. Object Management Group. 2019. " DDS Interoperability
Wire Protocol. " Object Management Group. https://tinyurl.com/
kwufmad7
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http://GeeksforGeeks.org http://GeeksforGeeks.org https://www.tinyurl.com/ybvj4jds https://www.tinyurl.com/pt6zxnax https://www.tinyurl.com/86833n7x http://www.ZDNet.com https://www.tinyurl.com/4p5bar7k https://www.mqtt.org https://www.tinyurl.com/4p5bar7k https://www.tinyurl.com/26hhztpa https://www.coap.technology/ https://www.tinyurl.com/26hhztpa https://www.tinyurl.com/kwufmad7 https://www.tinyurl.com/kwufmad7 https://www.oasis-open.org/ http://www.ashrae.org

ASHRAE Journal - July 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - July 2021

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - 6
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ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - July 2021 - Cover4
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