ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - 18

transferring heat from high density equipment rooms
and laboratory spaces to perimeter office spaces that
may need heating. Additional heating water is provided
by 93% efficient condensing boilers.
In addition to using ASHRAE/IESNA Standard
90.1-2007 as a baseline, the design team wanted to
compare the proposed building's energy use to similar
buildings currently in operation, namely other research
laboratories in the Pacific Northwest. The design
team used the International Institute for Sustainable
Laboratories (I2SL) benchmarking data to establish a
baseline EUI for similar laboratories of 265 kBtu/ft2·yr
(3009 MJ/m2·yr). From this, the team was able to set an
Architecture 2030 Challenge target of 116 EUI kBtu/ft2·yr
(1317 MJ/m2·yr).
The results of the ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007
baseline, I2SL baseline, Architecture 2030 Target and
designed building are summarized in Figure 2.
The designed building had an energy use intensity
of 107 kBtu/ft2·yr (1215 MJ/m2·yr), 43% less energy use
compared to the Standard 90.1-2007 baseline EUI of
189 kBtu/ft2·yr (2146 MJ/m2·yr). The designed building
also meets the Architecture 2030 Challenge.
Actual energy use was even better than predicted,
totaling 95.4 kBtu/ft2·yr (1083 MJ/m2·yr) for the first year
of operation. The data for the first year of operation was
taken between September 2018 and September 2019,
prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, and captures an occupied and fully functional building.

Indoor Air Quality

The primary method for maintaining a safe environment in the lab spaces was the use of fume hoods, biosafety cabinets and flammable and corrosive storage cabinets. These separate any potentially harmful chemicals
from the occupant breathing zone. In addition, the owner's Environmental Health and Radiation Safety group
required that lab spaces maintain 6 air changes per hour
(ach) while occupied and 4 ach when unoccupied. All the
air from the lab spaces is exhausted out of the building
and not recirculated. The high exhaust rates required
within the laboratory spaces necessitate a large amount of
outdoor makeup air, which can be very energy intensive
to condition and distribute.
Fortunately, the design team came up with an innovative method of providing makeup air that increased the
ventilation rate of the office space and reduced reheat

18

ASHRAE JOURNAL

ashrae.org

MARCH 2021

FIGURE 1 Hydronic system.

Cooling
Towers

Heat
Exchanger

Circulating Pumps

Isolation
Valves
Boiler
Boilers
Pumps
Heat Recovery
Hot Water
Chiller
Pumps

Chillers
Chilled Water
Pumps

Bypass
Valve

Bypass
Valve

Cooling
Coil Valve

Heating
Coil Valve

FIGURE 2 Modeled energy.

300
250
200
150
100
50
0

265

189

116

107

95

KBtu/ft2·yr

2021

ASHRAE AWARD OF ENGINEERING EXCELLENCE

I2SL ASHRAE 90.1 Architecture Final
Benchmark Baseline 2030 Target Design

Actual
Energy Use

ExtUsage
DomestHotWtr
VentFans
Pumps & Aux
Space Cooling
Space Heating
Plug Loads
Lights

energy in the lab spaces. This was achieved by introducing
a portion of the makeup air into the office spaces adjacent
to the labs and using transfer fans to move the excess air
from the office space into the labs. A schematic of this cascading air strategy is shown in Figure 3.
The following ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2010 ventilation
criteria were evaluated for the project: science laboratories require 10 cfm/person (4.7 L/s), plus 0.18 cfm/ft2
(0.9 L/s·m2); while offices require 5 cfm/person (2.4 L/s),
plus 0.06 cfm/ft2 (0.3 L/s·m2).
Applying this across the lab and office spaces in the
building, the required occupied ventilation rate is approximately 38,000 cfm (17 934 L/s). A ventilation effectiveness
of 0.8 was used for office spaces due to ceiling supply of
warm air with ceiling return, and a ventilation effectiveness of 1.0 was used in lab spaces due to the high equipment loads and relatively low supply air temperatures.
The lab air change rates directed by the owner require
nearly 60,000 cfm (28 317 L/s) of exhaust and subsequent makeup air. With the makeup air volume so much
higher than the required ventilation rates, the design
team looked for ways this excess ventilation could benefit building occupants.


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ASHRAE Journal - March 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - March 2021

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - 6
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ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - March 2021 - Cover4
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