ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 35

TECHNICAL FEATURE

the usability of a thermostat.15 While unable to reveal
the user goal, such methods provide useful information;
however, they are largely unexploited despite their low
cost and the volumes of data available.
Usability successes and failures of existing buildings
must be generalized, synthesized and reported to the
broader community so that mistakes are not repeated
and best practices are replicated. We underline the
importance of best practices guidelines for interface
design to close this loop.
We need to increase the codification of building
usability. Building codes and standards play a critical role
in controlling the quality of new buildings. Some aspects
of usability have become codified (e.g., the above lighting
examples), but there is significant room for more.
We need to consider a diversity of users and ensure
that all people are able to use buildings. Consider that
programmable thermostats lost Energy Star status once
we realized they're generally too hard for the general
population to use properly.16 Critically, we need to
expand our scope and ensure that designs are usable by
people with a wide array of abilities and impairments. In
the event of power failures, usability can become a matter of life or death-particularly for the vulnerable. We
can see evidence of accessibility all around us with large,
reachable door-open buttons, but what about operable
windows, window shades, thermostats, desk fans, etc.?
We need better training on human factors and
usability for all building-related professionals.
Consider the Venn diagram in Figure 6 that shows the
skills and knowledge base of building/architectural
engineers and human factors professionals. The overlap is slim. We need professionals to fill the void, and
members of each of the two existing professions should
receive some training in the other.
Ultimately, thoughtful consideration of design, usability, feedback mechanisms and physical location and
placement of building interfaces can greatly improve
occupant comfort and save energy.

References

1. Park, J.Y., M.M. Ouf, B. Gunay, Y. Peng, et al. 2019. " A critical
review of field implementations of occupant-centric building
controls. " Building and Environment 165:106351.
2. Ackerly, K., G. Brager. 2013. " Window signalling
systems: control strategies and occupant behaviour. "
Building Research & Information 41(3):342 - 360.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2013.772044
3. Nielsen, J. 1994. " Enhancing the explanatory power of

FIGURE 6 The void between building engineering and human factors.

Building Engineering
Custom
Adaptive
Owner-Centric
Comfort Model
Design
Building
Behavior
Physics
Modeling
Egress During Post-Occupancy
Emergency
Evaluations
Evacuation
Advanced Building
Controls (e.g., model
predictive control)

Human Factors
Mass
Usability
Production
Testing
With Versions
Traditional Thermal &
Visual Comfort Models
Void
User Interface Open Platform
For Reviews
Design
Prototyping
Accessibility
Machinery, Hospital,
Control Room Design

usability heuristics. " Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human
Factors in Computing Systems 152-58.
4. Norman, D. 2013. The Design of Everyday Things: Revised and
Expanded Edition. New York: Basic Books.
5. Karjalainen, S. 2009. " Thermal comfort and use of thermostats
in Finnish homes and offices. " Building and Environment 44(6):1237-45.
6. Pritoni, M., T. Peffer, J. Granderson, M. Kloss, et al. 2012. " Folk
labeling: insights on improving usability and saving energy gleaned
from after-market graffiti on common appliances. " Proceedings of the
2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.
7. Tamas, R., M. Ouf, W. O'Brien. 2020. " A field study on the
effect of building automation on perceived comfort and control in
institutional buildings. " Architectural Science Review 63(1):74-86.
8. Gilani, S., W. O'Brien. 2018. " A preliminary study of occupants'
use of manual lighting controls in private offices: a case study. "
Energy and Buildings 159:572-86.
9. Lipczynska, A., S. Schiavon, L.T. Graham. 2018. " Thermal
comfort and self-reported productivity in an office with ceiling fans
in the tropics. " Building and Environment 135:202-12.
10. Konis, K., S. Blessenohl, N. Kedia, V. Rahane. 2020.
" TrojanSense, a participatory sensing framework for occupantaware management of thermal comfort in campus buildings. "
Building and Environment 169:106588.
11. Kim, J., F. Bauman, P. Raftery, E. Arens, et al. 2019. " Occupant
comfort and behavior: high-resolution data from a 6-month field
study of personal comfort systems with 37 real office workers. "
Building and Environment 148:348-60.
12. Dong, B., V. Prakash, F. Feng, Z. O'Neill. 2019. " A review of smart
building sensing system for better indoor environment control. "
Energy and Buildings 199(15):29-46.
13. Bordass, B., A. Leaman. 2005. " Making feedback and postoccupancy evaluation routine 1: a portfolio of feedback techniques. "
Building Research & Information 33(4):347-52.
14. Huchuk, B., W. O'Brien, S. Sanner. 2020. " Exploring smart
thermostat users' schedule override behaviors and the energy
consequences. " Science and Technology for the Built Environment.
https://doi.org/10.1080/23744731.2020.1814668
15. Perry, D., C. Aragon, A. Meier, T. Peffer, M. Pritoni. 2011.
" Making energy savings easier: usability metrics for thermostats. "
Journal of Usability Studies 6(4):226-44.
16. Malinick, T., N. Wilairat, J. Holmes,
L. Perry. 2012. " Destined to disappoint:
programmable thermostat savings are only as
good as the assumptions about their operating
https://bit.ly/3khhdC5
characteristics. " ACEEE Summer Study on Energy
Rate this Article
Efficiency in Buildings.
JAN UARY 2021

ashrae.org

ASHRAE JOURNAL

35


https://www.doi.org/10.1080/23744731.2020.1814668 https://www.doi.org/10.1080/09613218.2013.772044 https://www.bit.ly/3khhdC5 http://www.ashrae.org

ASHRAE Journal - January 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - January 2021

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 1a
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 1b
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 6
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 43
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 44
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 45
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 46
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 47
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 58
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 59
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 64
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 65
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 66
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 67
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 68
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 69
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 73
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 74
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 75
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 76
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 77
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 78
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 79
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 80
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 81
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 82
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 83
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 84
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 85
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 86
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 87
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 88
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 89
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 90
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 91
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 92
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 93
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 94
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 95
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 96
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 97
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 98
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 99
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 100
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 101
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 102
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 103
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 104
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 105
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 106
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 107
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 108
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 109
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 110
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 111
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - 112
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - January 2021 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_VJKSRY
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_SDHUTC
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_JPPKRR
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_SDLTTH
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_CKLLES
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_SLDOX
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_HJETUK
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_OLUHGE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2020october
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2020october_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_ZERDGH
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_QVMNEO
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_RTPOKE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_BBATRE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_STUBMW
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_TPEMPE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_JNMKDS
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_FBTTPA
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_WQMMNE
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_TVBRYN
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_showguide2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_KTUZMA
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_ABEDGD
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2019septmeber_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2019september
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2019april
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2019march
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_showguide2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2018december
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2018november
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2018fall_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2018fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_2018october
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraemexico_2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraeinsights_201806
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201805
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201803
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2017fall_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2017fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201705
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashrae_meetinginsert_201610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2016fall_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2016fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_acrexindia
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2015summer_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_amca_2015summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/amca/2014summer2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/amca/2014summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_acma_2014summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_acmasupp_2013fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201305
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201303
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2013winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/achr_expo_mexico2012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201208_v3
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201208_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2012summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2012winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201111_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/ashraejournal_201109_v2
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/pubcatalog_2011summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/ashrae/meetingplanner_201103
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com