ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 35

TECHNICAL FEATURE
of the total 5,000 particles released).
It is evident that if purely using the
CA, only a small fraction of particles
can be discharged through the ceiling
exhausts. Most of the particles are
spread out indoors and ultimately
deposited on the occupants, tables,
ground and walls. FAP can clean 28%
of the particles while increasing the
deposition (48%) on the surrounding
walls due to the downward extraction
fl ow to the units. TAP can handle
almost 80% of the particles, while
slightly increasing the deposition on the tables compared
to fl oor units (but is better than the CA), indicating
a promising performance.
Velocity (m/s)
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
A.
CA
B.
CAF
TABLE 4 Particle fate comparison.
VENTILATION MODE
DISCHARGED
Similar CFD simulations were conducted for a large
ballroom with more occupants (1,320) and round tables
(165), which demonstrated similar performance. Due to
more complex indoor airfl ows and relatively larger table
size, fi nding proper TAP (both size and capacity) is critical
to achieve a successful cleaning solution.
Case Studies by Field Experiment
A fi eld mock-up experiment was
conducted in a typical hotel restaurant
and ballroom in December 2020.
Four heated thermal mannequins at
65 W (220 Btu/h) were built and placed
to represent actual occupants, each of
which had a body temperature of 31°C
(88°F) at the forehead and 28°C (82°F)
at the clothed body that matched the
body temperatures of actual persons
tested in the same space. Water-glycerin solution-based
fog was generated and supplied through the mouth of
one mannequin to simulate both the coughing and talking
scenarios. The coughing action lasted for fi ve seconds
with the droplet/fog exhaling speed around 5 m/s
(1,000 fpm), while the talking lasted for 20 seconds with
the exhaling speed of 1 m/s (200 fpm). The exhaling
speed was on a par with the CFD simulation, while CFD
released all particles at 1 second. The sizes of the exhaled
particles/droplets were mostly (over 70%) in the range of



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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - October 2021

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 6
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 12
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 21
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 43
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 50
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 54
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 61
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR1
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR2
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR3
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR4
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR5
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR6
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR7
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR8
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR9
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR10
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR11
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR12
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR13
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR14
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR15
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR16
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR17
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR18
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR19
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR20
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR21
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR22
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR23
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR24
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover4
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