ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 51

FIRST PLACE | 2021 ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES
In 2019, when this building was undergoing renovations,
the average cost for a new high school in
the area was $246/ft2 ($2,468/m2), according to the
Ohio Facilities Construction Commission (OFCC). At
143,000 ft2 (13 285 m2), if CPS were to build a new school
building of this size, it would have cost over $35 million.
CPS purchased the building for $2.85 million and
invested $13 million into improvements. The total
investment for this newly renovated high school was
$111/ft2 ($1,195/m2).
The time savings were comparable to the monetary
savings. Designing and constructing a new building of
this size would typically take 2 to 2.5 years. This building
renovation took less than one year.
IAQ/Thermal Comfort
Prior to this renovation, most of Mercy High School
was served by heating equipment only, with operable
windows for natural ventilation. The only portions of
the school that had air conditioning were the small 2006
addition served by a variable volume and temperature
system and the gymnasium served by a few packaged
rooftop units. To keep some areas more comfortable,
window air conditioners and split systems were being
used in a few classrooms and administrative offi ces.
This renovation introduced a central heating and cooling
plant, as well as mechanical ventilation. A water
source heat pump (WSHP) system was selected. Each
classroom is controlled by its own thermostat to meet
thermal comfort requirements per ASHRAE Standard
55-2010. New double-pane windows signifi cantly
reduced draftiness and removed warm and cool spots
caused by the old glazing's radiant effect. In administrative
areas, zoning was improved to provide separate control
for both interior and exterior zones.
The new WSHP system provided a drastic improvement
in thermal comfort compared to the old systems.
A dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) is being used to
provide outdoor air directly to all spaces in compliance
with ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2016. With the reduction
in infi ltration due to the new, properly sealed windows,
it was important to switch from natural to mechanical
ventilation to maintain proper IAQ.
Energy Effi ciency
While turning this 100-year-old building into a stateof-the-art
high school was always the project's primary
goal, the restricted timeline for design and construction
made deep energy retrofi ts a challenge. However, the
author's fi rm worked with fellow design team members
to implement as many energy-effi ciency measures as
possible to help the school meet its energy and operational
goals. The WSHP system paired with DOAS units
was selected due to the school district's familiarity with
operating the system, the relative speed with which
the system could be installed and its inherent energy
effi ciency. An open-circuit cooling tower and high-effi -
ciency condensing boilers were selected to temper the
building's condenser water loop.
Rather than use packaged direct expansion (DX)
equipment with gas heat for the DOAS units, the design
team elected to use the condenser water loop's effi ciency
to heat and cool air through the DOAS unit. To minimize
the energy required to treat outdoor air, an enthalpic
core heat exchanger was provided in each unit to pretreat
the air.
To further reduce the plant capacity required, the
building's envelope and lighting system were analyzed.
During early design stages, it was determined that by
replacing the existing single-pane windows with new,
thermally broken insulating windows, the cooling plant
capacity could be reduced by 24%, and the heating plant
capacity could be reduced by 29%. Therefore, the cost
was able to be shifted from the HVAC plant equipment to
help afford the replacement of windows.
For lighting, a complete conversion to LED lighting and
modern controls was completed to reduce the lighting
power density from 1.44 W/ft2 to 0.47 W/ft2 (15.5 W/m2
to 5.06 W/m2)-a 300% improvement and 54% better
than the current energy code. This improvement
alone resulted in an EUI reduction of 8.6 kBtu/ft2 · yr
(97.7 MJ/m2 · yr). In addition, further energy savings
were captured through the use of local dimming, occupancy
sensing and daylight harvesting.
Based on requirements from ASHRAE Standard 1002015
for an existing high school occupied more than
50 hours per week, an EUI target of 68 kBtu/ft2 · yr
(772.2 MJ/m2 · yr) was set for the renovated building.
Despite the tight schedule, the energy impacts of design
decisions were studied using preliminary energy calculations
throughout the course of design. Upon completion
of the design, a full energy model was generated to
provide an estimate for how the fi nal building would
perform and to verify the building was in compliance
O CTO B E R 2 0 2 1 ashrae.o rg ASHRAE JOURNAL
51
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - October 2021

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 6
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 7
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR1
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR2
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR3
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR4
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR5
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR6
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR7
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover4
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