ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 52

ASHRAE TECHNOLOGY AWARD CASE STUDIES
with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 according to the
Energy Cost Budget methodology. This data was then
compared to the metered energy use at the site. After
normalizing the modeled results to account for real-life
weather data, the modeled results were compared to the
real-life results (Figure 1).
The model predicted a fi nal energy use intensity
of 64 kBtu/ft2 · yr (726.8 MJ/m2 · yr), while the
actual building performed at an EUI of 70 kBtu/ft2 · yr
(795 MJ/m2 · yr) for the fi rst year of operation. In
September 2019, the building had just opened, and the
systems had not been fully commissioned, resulting in
higher energy use. By October, control issues had been
corrected, and the building was back to performing as
anticipated. Starting in February of 2020, however, the
COVID-19 pandemic had begun. As a result, CPS began
operating its DOAS 24/7 to consistently fl ush out the
building. (The building energy use is 11% below baseline
when excluding COVID-19 operations.)
This change in operation explains why the use profi le
after February is so far above what the model predicted.
Finally, the gym building, approximately 20,000 ft2
(1858 m2) of space, did not start construction until May
2020. Therefore, this space continued to be conditioned
by an ineffi cient boiler system and through-wall
air-conditioning units for most of the fi rst year. Once
the gym building is effectively running on the WSHP
system and the DOAS units are back to operating on an
occupancy schedule as intended, it is fully expected
that this building will outperform the modeled energy
performance.
Operation & Maintenance
The district was already using water source heat pump
systems, and the district maintained a stock of heat
pumps of various sizes at a district maintenance shop.
This allows their facilities staff to reduce downtime by
quickly swapping out faulty equipment. Heat pump
closets were designed to allow for effi cient repairs.
Doors were placed in front of each heat pump to slide
straight out, and standard fi lter racks were fabricated
to hold standard fi lter sizes, allowing for quicker fi lter
changes. This also enables the district to purchase larger
quantities of fi lters with less variety and reduce the storage
needed for multiple fi lter sizes.
Due to the pandemic, IAQ has become a high priority.
One strategy recommended by ASHRAE is to use MERV
52
ASHRAE JOURNAL ashrae.o rg O CTO B E R 2 0 2 1
FIGURE 1 Historic Mercy High School energy use.
Modeled vs. Metered Energy Use
12
10
8
6
4
2
Predicted
Modeled EUI = 70 KBtu/ft2·yr
Predicted EUI = 64 KBtu/ft2·yr
90.1 Baseline = 70 KBtu/ft2·yr
Start of COVID-19
Operations
Controls Commissioning
Completed
Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul
2019
|
90.1-2013 Baseline
2020
Metered
13 fi ltration wherever possible. With the external fi lter
banks, CPS has the fl exibility to upgrade to MERV 13 fi lters.
To reduce cooling tower maintenance, the cooling
tower system was set up so all condenser water drains
back to a remote tank inside the central plant. This eliminates
any freeze risk and maintenance associated with
basin heaters, piping heat trace and fl oat fi ll valves.
By converting lighting to 100% LED, traditional lamp
and ballast maintenance for fl uorescents went away.
This saves an estimated $16/fi xture/year in maintenance
costs. The building automation system (BAS) is also
being used to integrate several building systems, monitoring
domestic water heating, recirculation pumps,
elevator sump pumps and exterior lighting. Utility
meter readings are also monitored at the BAS, including
water use, irrigation water use and natural gas use.
Environmental Impact
Since the constraints of opening the school on schedule
and within budget limited opportunities for implementing
energy conservation measures and driving
down the building's EUI, the choice to renovate an existing
building, rather than pursue new construction, paid
dividends toward the project's overall environmental
impact. Using the Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings
to calculate the embodied carbon associated with the
school's renovation, it was determined the project would
emit 95% less carbon dioxide than a comparable newly
constructed project in the fi rst year. Despite the school's
higher operational emissions, this initial reduction in
embodied carbon puts the project's cumulative carbon
emissions through 2030 on par with that of a newly constructed,
high-performance K-12 building operating at
an EUI of 25 kBtu/ft2 · yr (283.9 MJ/m2 · yr).
2021
EUI (kBtu/ft2·month)
http://ashrae.org

ASHRAE Journal - October 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ASHRAE Journal - October 2021

Contents
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Intro
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover1
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover2
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 1
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Contents
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 3
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 4
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 5
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 6
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 7
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 8
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 9
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 10
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 11
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 12
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 13
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 14
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 15
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 16
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 17
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 18
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 19
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 20
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 21
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 22
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 23
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 24
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 25
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 26
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 27
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 28
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 29
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 30
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 31
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 32
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 33
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 34
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 35
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 36
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 37
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 38
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 39
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 40
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 41
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 42
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 43
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 45
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 48
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 49
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 50
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 51
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 52
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 53
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 54
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 55
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 56
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 57
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 58
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 60
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 61
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 62
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 63
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 64
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 65
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 70
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 71
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 72
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR1
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR2
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR3
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR4
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR5
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR6
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR7
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR8
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR9
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR10
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR11
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR12
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR13
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR14
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR15
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR16
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR17
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR18
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR19
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR20
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR21
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR22
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR23
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - HR24
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 73
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 90
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ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 95
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - 96
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover3
ASHRAE Journal - October 2021 - Cover4
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