Plastics News - Show Daily - October 17, 2023 - 7

FAKUMA SHOW DAILY
Plastics News, October 17, 2023 * 7
Pultrusion, thermoforming, 3D printing developments at IKT
By David Vink
Plastics News Correspondent
Stuttgart, Germany-based IKT
plastics technology institute has
presented various examples of
development work at its 2023
plastics technology colloquium.
In one example, composite
container lashing rods could potentially
replace galvanized steel
rods, said IKT researcher Laura
Klis. One potential example cited,
traditional steel rods failed after
the October 2011 sinking of the
cargo ship MV Rena when it ran
aground on the Astrolabe Reef off
New Zealand. A " substantial number "
of the 1,368 cargo containers
on the ship were lost overboard.
The specifi cs of those rods
are not available, but composite
rods in the same use would be
unaffected by marine salty air
environments.
Pultruded continuous 63 percent
glass-fi ber-reinforced nylon
6 lashing rods could potentially
be produced with in-situ polymerization
from low-viscosity
reactive monomer caprolactam
monomer introduced with glass
fi bers into a conical compression
die.
Such
lashing
rods
would
contribute to lower emissions
and port staff safety with
lower weight - 1.8 against 7.8
grams per cubic centimeter.
Key research work involves
pultrusion of 830- to 5,000-milKlis
Reindl
limeter
profi les and creation
of high tensile shear and bond
strength aluminum/magnesium
alloy fi xing attachment designs.
Klis said IKT has for the fi rst
time applied inline non-destructive
terahertz quality inspection
to pultruded profi les within the
lashing rod project.
Thermoforming and
3D printing
Tim Reindl worked on comSolvay
Fakuma 2023 - Half Page Ad_A3.pdf 1 9/14/23 4:31 PM
bined thermoforming and fused
fi lament fabrication (FFF) 3D
printing for production of complex
large-area components.
This could be an alternative to
high tool-cost injection molding
of lower production series. It required
assessment and optimization
of adhesive strength between
printed and thermoformed structures.
This was in order to overcome
low bond strength due to
Lajewski
low interlaminar
adhesion
of the printed
layers and the
large temperature
gradient
at the thermoformed/printed
interface.
Reindl said
poor interlaminar
adhesion
arises due to
the discontinuous FFF process,
in which rapid strand cooling results
in a low degree of welding
to the solidifi ed fi rst-applied and
adjacent strands, resulting in
high internal stress.
Although
printing
chamber
temperature can be increased
or post-printing heat treatment
applied, Reindl said these measures
result in part shrinkage
and warpage. He ruled out higher
FFF process temperature, as
it may lead to material degradation
and surface defects. The
key is local heating, he said.
He used a fl ame retardant
ABS as granulate recycled from
thermoformed off-cuts and as
extruded FFF fi laments. Trials
showed bond strength rising
from 4.42 megapascals at 90° C,
then reaching much higher levels
between 100-110° C.
Aside from the mentioned thermoformed/printed
hybrid
approach,
IKT has also developed
welding inserts to
thermoforming sheet
as the sheet deforms
to form a fi nished
part. Researcher
Domink Müller studied
the infl uence of
different polypropylene
and polystyrene
material properties
IKT PLASTICS
TECHNOLOGY
INSTITUTE
Hall A5,
Booth 5104
on weld seam quality with various
process parameters.
As an alternative to butenediol
vinyl alcohol copolymer, Silvia
Lajewski developed bio-based
and biodegradable 60 percent
water-soluble support structure
FFF fi laments by compounding
and extruding
normally insoluble
poly-hydroxybutyrate/hydroxyvalerate
copolymer
granulate
with 10 percent polyethylene
glycol (PEG)
fl akes and up to 50
percent common salt
powder in a ZS26 twin-screw
Coperion extruder. Work now focuses
on PEG in fl uid and masterbatch
form, microscope analysis
and bond strength of the interface
between the support structure
and printed part.
Containers toppled off
the MV Rena container
ship when it ran aground.
Maritime New Zealand photo
C
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CM
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CY
CMY
K
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in Hall B4, Booth 4213
October 17 - 21
Friedrichshafen
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Plastics News - Show Daily - October 17, 2023

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Plastics News - Show Daily - October 17, 2023 - 1
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