H2Tech - Q2 2022 - 6

Pressurized pipelines are considered
a relevant solution for transporting
molecular energy from the point of
production or storage to the point of
consumption. Due to the susceptibility
of steel to H2
embrittlement, the
pipeline material must be qualified
to demonstrate its readiness for H2
transportation, and the new standards
and guidelines require specific
characterizations in gaseous H2
According to Tenaris, H2
can easily diffuse into the metal's
crystalline lattice due to their small
size. The interaction with the metal's
microstructure can eventually result
in the degradation of the metal's
mechanical properties, mainly involving
a loss in mechanical ductility, reduced
fracture toughness and loss of fatigue
resistance. Purity, temperature and
pressure can affect the severity of
the embrittlement. Therefore, it is
fundamental to determine how new and
existing pipeline materials will react to
the different compositions, pressures
and temperatures under which these
pipelines will operate.
Tenaris is addressing the need
for reliable and high-performance
materials in H2
environments with
the development of THera™, a new
technology that offers a long-lasting
and completely recyclable material with
a verified product lifecycle, thanks to
material testing in pressurized
The experimental activity carried
out to qualify seamless pipes of up
to grades X70, according to ASME
B31.12 requirements, demonstrates
the potential of THera solutions for
safe LH2
as an LH2 cargo containment system
for mid-size LH2
The demand for H2
shipping technologies. This
carrier design, as well
across multiple
sectors is forecast to increase to meet
the need for net zero-carbon energy
sources in the energy transition. The
ability to transport very large volumes of
in liquefied form (-250°C) is one of
the technological challenges that must
be met to establish a reliable, efficient
and competitive H2
supply chain.
GTT's technological know-how in LNG
shipping and storage and capacity for
innovation will be applied to develop an
optimal containment solution that can
be used on an industrial scale for the
maritime transport of LH2
World's first pilot of safe
and non-toxic H2
employing Hydrilyte™
storage and transport is very
challenging because while 1 kg of H2
contains three times the energy of 1 kg
of diesel, 1 kg of H2
takes up 11 m3
space at sea level, compared to just
over 1 l (liter) of diesel. The conventional
approach is to compress it to very high
pressures or to liquefy it, which means
cooling it to just above absolute zero.
Both approaches are expensive and
inherently dangerous. The multi-patented
Hydrilyte™ technology from Australian
company Carbon280 stores H2
the need for compression or cooling.
Hydrilyte is a liquid containing
suspended metal dust that forms a
chemical bond with H2
pipeline transportation of up to
200 bar with an extra safety margin.
Development and innovation
of liquid H2
by Shell and GTT
International Trading and Shipping
Co., a center for maritime expertise
within Shell that provides specialist
knowledge, insurance, technology
and innovation solutions, and GTT, a
technology expert in the design of
cryogenic containment systems used to
store and transport liquefied gases, will
develop new technologies to enable the
transportation of liquid H2
This cooperation agreement is part of
Shell's strategy to develop a H2
supply chain by creating scalable and
6 Q2 2022 | H2-Tech.com
. The chemical
bond is very stable and Hydrilyte can
safely retain 100% of the H2
stored in
it for decades. Hydrilyte is made from
cheap and plentiful materials and its
performance improves over time rather
than degrading.
The Hydrilyte Refueler Prototype
project has been awarded funding
through the Net Zero Innovation
Portfolio (NZIP) Longer Duration Energy
Storage Demonstration program.
Under the first phase of the two-phase
program, the consortium is delivering a
feasibility study for a Phase 2 prototype
which, if successful, will be built between
2022 and 2024 at Holyhead in North
Wales. The prototype will demonstrate
the ability to store H2
in Hydrilyte at an
H2 hub, transport the Hydrilyte using
refueling system.
standard fuel tankers and release the H2
into an Element2 H2
Elliott Group has developed a new,
configurable compressor arrangement
designed to enhance operational
flexibility in H2
compressor arrangement allows for
improved reliability and accessibility
to the rotating components.
compression requires a large
number of compression stages to achieve
a reasonable head for a very light gas.
With the Flex-Op arrangement of three to
four casings, up to 40 impeller stages can
fit into a footprint that traditionally only
fit up to 10 stages. This shrinks the linear
footprint of the compressor section from
≥ 40 ft to about 10 ft and offers up to
four times the compression capability
within the approximate linear footprint
of one compressor.
In the Flex-Op arrangement, individual
compressors can be run in series or in
parallel, or both. This is achieved with
three to four centrifugal compressors
arranged about a single multi-pinion
gearbox. Each rotor is connected to its
own pinion via a flexible shaft coupled to
the central gear, which means the rotor
speeds can be individually optimized for
the highest aerodynamic efficiency. Elliott's
barrel casing configuration, coupled with
the single multi-pinion gearbox, allows the
entire assembly to be powered by a motor
with a variable frequency drive or a motor
in conjunction with a variable speed drive
for speed control.
The Flex-Op arrangement has many
advantages over reciprocating or highspeed
centrifugal compressors. It uses
standard Elliott-designed compressors
and impellers and is compact and easy
to maintain and repair. It can engage or
disengage individual compressors, switch
between series and parallel operation,
and run each compressor at different
speeds. Most importantly, for pure H2
compression, the process gas is safe from
the risk of oil contamination. The Flex-Op
design is not limited to H2
but is also suitable for energy storage
and other process compression and
refining applications.
applications. The Flex-Op
includes the development by GTT of a
preliminary LH2
New H2
from Elliot
compression system

H2Tech - Q2 2022

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