H2Tech - Q4 2022 - 12

Long-range trucks
powered by H2
fuel cells
in the testing stage
Volvo Trucks has begun to test
vehicles that use fuel cells powered by
, which have an extended range of as
much as 1,000 km (more than 621 mi).
To decarbonize the transportation
sector, Volvo Trucks offers battery
electric trucks and trucks that run on
renewable fuels, such as biogas, and are
now adding fuel cell trucks powered by
to its portfolio. A fuel cell generates
its own electricity from the H2
instead of being charged from an
external source. The only byproduct
emitted is water vapor.
Volvo's H2
fuel cell technology has
been under development and is running
successfully on the test track. According
to the company, irrespective of transport
assignments, the combination of
battery electric and fuel cell electric
can eliminate CO2
exhaust emissions
from trucks. The technology is expected
to be in pilot stage in a few years and
become commercially available in the
late 2020s/early 2030s. The fuel cell
electric trucks will have an operational
range comparable to many diesel trucks
(up to 1,000 km) and a refueling time of
less than 15 min. The total weight can be
around 65 t or even higher, and the two
fuel cells have the capacity to generate
300 kW of electricity onboard.
According to Volvo, H2
fuel cell electric trucks will be especially
suitable for long distances and heavy,
energy-demanding assignments.
They could also be an option in
countries where battery charging
possibilities are limited.
Fuel cell technology is still in the
early phases of development, with
several benefits and challenges-
i.e., the large-scale supply of green
and the lack of H2
infrastructure for heavy vehicles.
According to Volvo, the supply of
green H2 will increase significantly
during the next several years since
many industries will depend on it to
reduce CO2
. Fuel cell trucks will then be
an important complement for longer
and heavier transports. Volvo has
commenced the testing of a fuel cell
articulated hauler prototype, as well.
12 Q4 2022 | H2-Tech.com
SSAB, LKAB and Vattenfall have
inaugurated HYBRIT's pilot facility
for fossil-free H2
gas storage at
Svartöberget in Luleå, Sweden. The
rock cavern storage facility is the first of
its kind in the world. The inauguration
ceremony marks the start of the 2-yr
test period, which will run until 2024.
The HYBRIT initiative was launched
in 2016 by SSAB, LKAB and Vattenfall.
The H2
storage facility will play a very
important role in the overall value chain
for fossil-free iron and steel production.
Producing fossil-free H2
gas when there
is excess electricity and using stored H2
gas when the electricity system is under
strain will ensure a steady production
of sponge iron, the raw material behind
fossil-free steel.
According to the Swedish Minister
for Energy and Digital Development,
Sweden will create new jobs by leading
the climate change transition, and the
HYBRIT project is an example of this
transition using green technology and
innovation. Building the energy system of
the future requires taking advantage of
opportunities to store energy and ensure
that large energy users can be flexible in
their consumption. HYBRIT's H2
design can offer these advantages.
HYBRIT is being developed so that
it is in line with the electricity system
of the future, with more weatherdependent
electricity generation.
The storage facility is different than
conventional ones and enables the
HYBRIT initiative to take a lead in the
fossil-free transition. According to
Andreas Regnell, Chairman of the Board,
Hybrit Development AB and Senior
Vice President and Head of Strategic
Development at Vattenfall, HYBRIT can
become important for facing climate
challenges and enabling fossil-free living
within one generation.
According to Martin Pei, Chief
Technology Officer, SSAB, SSAB can
SSAB, LKAB and Vattenfall
gas storage, steel production
inaugurate facility for fossil-free
transform operations and cut Sweden's
and Finland's CO2
and 7%, respectively. The H2
emissions by 10%
facility is important to ensure stable
steel production and a milestone in the
development of HYBRIT.
Lars Ydreskog, Senior Vice President
of Strategic Projects at LKAB, described
gas and its storage as central to the
transition to fossil-free steel. In 4 yr,
HYBRIT technology will be used on a
large scale in the first demonstration
plant in Gällivare, Sweden. The plan is to
then build more sponge iron factories.
The pilot project will provide valuable
knowledge for the continuing work
on creating the world's first fossilfree
value chain for the iron and steel
industry and aid LKAB in achieving its
goal of high H2
production capacity.
According to Klara Helstad, Head of
Sustainable Industry Unit at the Swedish
Energy Agency, the pilot plant is also
important to test and understand how
large-scale H2
storage works, which is
essential for a fossil-free value chain for
the iron and steel industry and a robust
future electrical system.
The technology for storing gas in a
lined rock cavern (LRC) is well proven
and has been used in southern Sweden
for about 20 yr for storing natural gas.
The technology is taking a step forward
with the development of storing H2
gas, and the storage facility will also be
used more dynamically, being filled and
emptied at pace with the H2
The pilot plant has a size of 100
. At a later stage, a full-scale H2
-120,000 m3
storage facility measuring 100,000
may be required-such
a facility will be able to store up to
100 GWh of electricity converted to H2
gas, which is sufficient to supply a fullsized
sponge iron factory for 3 d-4 d.
SSAB, LKAB and Vattenfall have
invested $23.4 MM in H2
storage alone,
with the Swedish Energy Agency
contributing more than $6.5 MM. The
following are notable facts about the H2
gas storage facility:
* Construction of the H2
gas storage
facility began in May 2021. H2
storage will be tested in the
storage facility using known LRC
technology. This means the gas is
stored underground in a rock cavern
with walls that are lined with a
selected material as a sealing layer.
* The fossil-free H2
gas is produced
by water electrolysis using
fossil-free electricity.
* It is important to construct such
a facility in rock that maintains its

H2Tech - Q4 2022

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