H2Tech - Q4 2022 - 18

fossil fuels before combustion is
completed. Examples include coal
gasification and SMR, where the
feedstock is partially oxidized to
form syngas, followed by a watergas
shift (WGS) to produce a
and H2
stream, from which
CO2 can be separated.
* Oxy‐combustion-Oxycombustion
carbon capture, or
oxyfuel combustion, refers to
combustion with pure oxygen.
In this process, the fossil fuel is
burned in oxygen instead of air.
The resulting flue gas consists
of mainly CO2
stream that can be
transported and stored.
* Post‐combustion-Postcombustion
capture involves the
removal of CO2
from flue gas after
the fossil fuel has been burned.
Post‐combustion methods are
end‐of‐pipe solutions for industrial
combustion processes. Flue gases
for post‐combustion capture
have anywhere from 5%-15%
concentration and are near
atmospheric pressure.
CCUS technologies can be classified
into three phases in case of deployment:
1. Ready technologies are CO2
capture technologies that can
be categorized as commercially
available or almost commercially
available. These technologies
have been tested or operated
as demonstration projects, or
are widely deployed in various
commercial applications. In
the near or medium term,
it is expected that these
technologies would involve
further development to achieve
incremental improvement.
2. Emerging technologies,
such as emerging CO2
capture technologies, can be
demonstrated at pre‐commercial
scale and may become
commercially available in the
coming years.
3. Concept technologies are
emerging technologies that are
considered to be at a low level
of maturity with a long lead time
to get to market.
18 Q4 2022 | H2-Tech.com
Most ready-deployed technologies are
based on post‐combustion CO2
and are deployed as part of large‐scale
CCS projects at existing power generation
plants. Deployment of CO2
and water vapor.
The water is condensed through
cooling and the result is an almost
pure CO2
technology has focused on low‐cost process
emissions-based opportunities, including
industrial applications such as
natural gas processing, cement, iron and
steel, and chemicals, as well as power generation
plants. Carbon capture processes
can be classified according to their gas
separation/capturing principles, namely
chemical absorption, physical absorption,
adsorption, calcium and reversible chemical
loops, membranes, [direct air capture
(DAC)] and cryogenic separation.
industrial applications of CO2
emissions. More recently,
applications. The cost of CO2
capture can
vary by point source and technology. Fuel
transformation applications that produce
a concentrated CO2
stream and/or that
require CO2 to be separated as an inherent
capture costs
and have been favored for deployment.
Transitioning from oil and gas to
clean energy will require a huge investment.
Government policies and regulations,
in addition to global awareness,
will accelerate the transition to net-zero
emissions. Investing in CO2
capture activities have mostly
focused on power generation plants-
mainly coal‐ and gas‐fired power plants-
as these comprise the largest stationary
source of CO2
have begun to gather momentum, mainly
in the steel and cement industries, and
(to a lesser extent) in the oil refining and
chemicals industries.
and recovery of CO2
storage involves the production
from industrial
processes and is typically followed by
drying and compression. The captured
can be injected into depleted oil and
natural gas fields as enhanced oil recovery
(EOR) or stored as sequestration in
other deep geological formations, such as
saline aquifers. Alternatively, CO2
can be
used as a chemical feedstock for e-fuel,
curing in cement process and algal biofuels
production, among a wide range of
utilization options.
Takeaway. Carbon capture from gas
streams is not new. CO2
other acid gases from methane in natural
gas production. Prior to the early 1970s,
all CO2
capture technologies
based on chemical solvents
(amines) were first commercially deployed
in the 1930s to separate CO2
captured was vented to atmosphere
except for a small portion used or
sold for other purposes, such as urea production
or beverage carbonation.
The main driver of carbon capture is
capture costs or capture abatement in $/
MMt of CO2
. The cost of CO2
from low-concentration sources, such
as coal-fired power generation, has been
reduced by approximately 50% over the
past decade and is decreasing for other
and utilization, especially by integrating
it with existing facilities, will contribute
significantly to emissions reduction. To
increase the clean energy supply and demand,
companies must invest in technology
innovation and digitalization. This
will significantly reduce the cost of green
technologies, a major challenge for energy
is a Process Engineer at Saudi
Aramco's Energy Transition
Engineering department, within
the Hydrogen Systems Engineering
Division. He has 7 yr of experience
with Saudi Aramco, which includes
company operations and project support along
with supporting company movement in the
Energy Transition initiative. Al-Mahmood has also
participated in the commissioning and process
stabilization of a gas processing operating facility.
He has also supported the company in its
decarbonization movement by evaluating flare gas
recovery system (FGRS) feasibility, optimum
application selectivity and energy consumption.
Al-Mahmood earned a BS degree in chemical
engineering from Oklahoma State University.
team-oriented Process Engineer
with demonstrated experience
in technical services. He is a
chemical engineer with 6 yr of
experience in engineering services
and technical support. During his
filed assessment, he worked in gas plant facilities
including but not limited to acid gas removal,
dehydration and sulfur recovery. He was involved
in operations, process and technical support and
led gas plants startups from pre-commissioning
all the way to gas production of gas sweetening
units. Al-Qahtani holds a Fundamental
Engineering certificate.
Process Engineer working in
Saudi Aramco's Energy Transition
Engineering department. He has
7 yr of experience working in the
hydrogen generation unit (SMRbased)
and hydrocracking unit.
Alwarthan is a certified Professional Engineer (PE)
from NCESS. He holds a BS degree in chemical
engineering from KFUPM with highest honors.
part of the process (such as in natural gas
processing) have low CO2

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