H2Tech - Q4 2022 - 25

then be converted into a diverse range of
chemicals by subsequent catalytic reactions
with varying H2
are also capable of splitting CO2
and O2
:CO ratios. SOECs
into CO
. Ammonia production by SOECs
sending air and steam into the electrolyzer
is under development, currently at
very low yield. However, ammonia can
be used as fuel while operating in SOFC
mode for use in marine applications-
this is also in development. This versatility
in operation makes SOECs superior
to other electrolysis modes of operation.
Takeaways. Reaching net-zero targets
calls for significant changes in the ways
the energy industry operates, and we are
witnessing the movement in that direction.
It is widely accepted now that H2
molecules have the potential to achieve
the deep decarbonization of our energy
industry, provided we can produce H2
more sustainably and cost-effectively.
Opinions vary around the globe on
how to reach an ambitious green H2
cost of $1/kg. We know that the cost of
renewable power is playing a significant
role in the overall production cost of
green H2
, even though electrolyzer techprojects
are being announced
nology is one of the key barriers. Several
green H2
around the globe. Alkaline electrolyzers
(AE) are in the lead in terms of capacity,
which is well-proven and price competitive,
followed by PEM electrolyzer technology.
Solid oxide electrolzyers are at a
small-scale demonstration level. These
technologies have achieved enormous
improvements driven by advances at the
cell, stack and system levels.
Some specific
features make SOE
technology unique compared to other
commercially proven technologies, such
as AE and PEME. For example, SOECs
operate at 700°C-850°C, and the thermodynamically
water split reaction requires
a lower Gibbs free Energy (ΔG)
at such a high-temperature, making this
process highly efficient. Moreover, integrating
an external waste heat source
like low-pressure steam from an industrial
source can help lower electricity
demand, depending on the supply temperature.
In addition to green H2
the same technology can be applied
to various other processes directly
producing end products like ammonia,
methanol, SNG, etc.
The main electrolyzer components,
FIG. 10. High-temperature electrolysis coupled with CO2
like electrolytes and electrodes, are made
of ceramic materials due to the high operating
temperature. These SOEC materials
are earth-abundant, so scaling up
will not pose any challenge in terms of
materials availability. Also, the possibility
of SOECs working in reversible operation
so a single unit allows for both
energy storage and generation permits
a complete green power plant to achieve
zero-energy building and carbon neutrality
Commercial SOEC electrolyzers are
at the kW level, and demonstration units
larger than 3 MW are under execution.
To see the full potential of SOEC technology,
much lower levels of cell degradation
at higher current densities must
be demonstrated. Moreover, to achieve
commercial scale-up, further work is
needed in manufacturing and assembling
cells to reduce the unit's overall cost.
The authors wish to express their sincere thanks
to Thibault De-Sorbier, Process Technology Expert,
Technip Energies Paris for his valuable suggestions
and guidance.
Complete references are available online at
SUKLA ROY is the Deputy Chief Engineer in the
Process and Technology department of Technip
Energies India Ltd. She has 17 yr of experience in
the oil and gas industry, including more than 15 yr
of experience in the H2
, syngas and HCNG fields.
She has extensive experience as a process lead in
several basic engineering, detailed engineering and
licensed engineering, procurement, construction and
commissioning (LEPCC) projects. Previously, Roy
worked with EIL as a process engineer. She holds
an M.Tech degree in petrochemicals and petroleum
refinery engineering and a B.Tech degree in chemical
engineering from the University of Calcutta.
MARUTHI ETHAKOTA is Head of the Process and
Technology department of Technip Energies India
Ltd. In this position, he is responsible for Process
and Technology departmental operations of all three
Technip Energies India centers located in Delhi,
Mumbai and Chennai. He has 26 yr of experience in
the process and technology segments, and has been
closely associated with the H2
molecule for 20 yr. In
2002, he joined the process department of Technip
Benelux B.V in the Netherlands and has executed
several H2
and syngas projects worldwide. He also
worked as Product Development Manager for Technip
Benelux for H2
and syngas technologies, where he
was closely involved in developing new technologies
for the H2
and syngas product line. Ethakota earned
an MS degree in chemical engineering from Indian
Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India.
H2Tech | Q4 2022 25
FIG. 9. High-temperature SOEC coupled with ammonia production.

H2Tech - Q4 2022

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