Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 62


THE NEXT WAVE

Breakthroughs in radiation therapy-specifically, the use
of heavy particles, such as protons and carbon-ions-are
creating promising new possibilities for treating cancer.
First came proton therapy, which uses proton beams
to target tumors with greater accuracy than X-rays or
gamma rays. Carbon-ion therapy, a newer approach,
enables treatment of deeper and more sensitively located
cancer cells with even higher precision. Long adopted in
Europe and Asia, the treatment is now tiptoeing its way
into North America.
And the design for this complex treatment method is
equally challenging, starting with size alone. Carbonions, being larger than protons, require a higher acceleration to achieve the required energy for treatment,
resulting in a larger equipment size.
The planning of treatment rooms, specifically, is based
on the type of radiation beam used. For example, the typical room size for fixed-beam angles-usually 30, 45, or
90 degrees-is around 600 square feet. Unlike horizontal
beams, vertical or oblique beams come from above and
require ceiling heights of almost 60 feet to accommodate
the necessary magnets.
A gantry can rotate 360 degrees to generate radiation
beams at any desired angle, increasing the possibility of
treating hard-to-reach tumors. These are approximately
40 feet in diameter and 60 feet in length, weigh about
600 tons, and require a space that's more than 60 feet
high for rotations. The ceiling design of a gantry room
usually includes a hatch for maintenance and replacement of machine parts, too.
These patient spaces are supported by the equipment
room, which is where all the action takes place. The ion
source, linear accelerator, synchrotron, and beam lines
emerge from here. Even though the length of the linear
accelerator varies between 16 to 33 feet, it must be supported by a synchrotron. A synchrotron is about 70 to 100
feet in diameter and 200 feet in circumference-huge
enough to create planning constraints.
To address structural loading concerns, treatment
and equipment rooms should be located on lower floors,
either on-grade or in the basement.

62

HCDmagazine.com 11.15

The heavy carbon-ions also require greater shielding
as compared to other forms of radiation. The entry to
treatment rooms is usually designed as a maze to avoid
leakage of radiation. The number of turns in the maze
depends on the amount of shielding required, making
it either a single- or double-maze entry-both equally
common in existing facilities. Utilizing the earth as a
natural radiation shield in the basement areas can be
more economical, as well. The wall thickness for radiation
protection is based on calculations by shielding consultants and can range between 6 to 10 feet.

The design of public spaces can play a key role in
lending a human touch and balancing the institutional
character of such facilities. Sights and sounds of nature,
natural light, warm materials such as wood, family-friendly amenities, etc., can create a more therapeutic setting.
Within the treatment rooms, creating positive distractions through simulation of the sky or other pleasant imagery on the walls or ceilings can help alleviate patients'
stress during their procedures. This can be particularly
beneficial in treatment rooms fitted with a gantry because
of the intimidating equipment and the complexity of the
procedure.

The layout of a typical carbonion treatment center may look
something like this conceptual
model, including (1) public
spaces with nature views
to alleviate patient
stress, (2) a fixedbeam treatment
room with doublemaze entry, (3) a
treatment area located within
a triple-height gantry, (4) an
equipment room with the ion
source and linear accelerator
placed within the synchrotron
ring and beam lines connecting
to treatment rooms, (5) a
control area immediately
outside the treatment room,
and (6) internal corridors
punctuated to bring in natural
light.

Dyutima Jha, Assoc. AIA, EDAC, is director of research and
healthcare planner at Kahler Slater (Singapore). She can be
reached at djha@kahlerslater.com.

MORE ONLINE To read more on designing
facilities to support carbon-ion therapy, including
more details on interiors considerations and why
growth in the field is anticipated, see HCDmagazine.
com/carbon-ion-therapy.

© DYUTIMA JHA

As the latest breakthrough in delivering
radiation for cancer treatment, carbon-ion
therapy is gaining popularity worldwide
and inching toward more adoption in the
U.S., calling for designs that support the
highly complex technology By Dyutima Jha


http://www.hcdmagazine.com/carbon-ion-therapy http://www.hcdmagazine.com/carbon-ion-therapy http://www.HCDmagazine.com

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Healthcare Design - November 2015

Healthcare Design - November 2015
Contents
HCD Online
Editorial
Monitor
The Center
The Retailing of Healthcare
Mixed Methods
Come Together
The Driver’s Seat
Generation Next
Going Deep
New Neighbor
Ready, Set, Show
Construction
Research
Special Advertising Section: Buyers Guide
Special Advertising Section: Project Watch
First Look
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Healthcare Design - November 2015
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Cover2
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 1
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Contents
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 3
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 4
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 5
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - HCD Online
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 7
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Editorial
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 9
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 10
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 11
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 12
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 13
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Monitor
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 15
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 16
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 17
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 18
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 19
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 20
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 21
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 22
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 23
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 24
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 25
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 26
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 27
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - The Center
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 29
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - The Retailing of Healthcare
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 31
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 32
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 33
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 34
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 35
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 36
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 37
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 38
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 39
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 40
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 41
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Mixed Methods
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 43
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 44
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 45
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 46
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 47
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 48
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 49
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 50
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 51
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 52
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 53
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 54
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 55
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Come Together
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 57
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 58
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 59
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 60
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 61
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 62
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 63
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 64
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 65
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - The Driver’s Seat
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 67
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Generation Next
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 69
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 70
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 71
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 72
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 73
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 74
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 75
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Going Deep
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 77
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 78
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 79
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 80
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 81
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - New Neighbor
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 83
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 84
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 85
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 86
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 87
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 88
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 89
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 90
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 91
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 92
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 93
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Ready, Set, Show
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 95
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 96
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 97
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 98
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 99
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 100
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 101
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 102
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 103
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 104
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 105
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Construction
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 107
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 108
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 109
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Research
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 111
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 112
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 113
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Special Advertising Section: Buyers Guide
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 115
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 116
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 117
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 118
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 119
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 120
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 121
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 122
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 123
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 124
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 125
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 126
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 127
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 128
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 129
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 130
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 131
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 132
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 133
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 134
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 135
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 136
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 137
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 138
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 139
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 140
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 141
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 142
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 143
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 144
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 145
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 146
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 147
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 148
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 149
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 150
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 151
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 152
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 153
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 154
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 155
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 156
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 157
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 158
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Special Advertising Section: Project Watch
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 160
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 161
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 162
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 163
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 164
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 165
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 166
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - 167
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - First Look
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Cover3
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - Cover4
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA1
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA2
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA3
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA4
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA5
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA6
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA7
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA8
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA9
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA10
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA11
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA12
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA13
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA14
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA15
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA16
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA17
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA18
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA19
Healthcare Design - November 2015 - AIA20
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/202010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/202009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/202008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/20200607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/202005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/202004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/202003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/20200102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/20190607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/20180607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201805
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201804
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201803
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201802
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201801
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201712
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201711
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201710
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201709
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201706
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201705
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201704
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201703
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201702
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201701
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201612
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201611
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201610
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201609
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201608
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/20160607
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201605
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201604
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201603
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/20160102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201512
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201511
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201510
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201509
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201508
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201505
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201504
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201503
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201501
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201412
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201410
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201409
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201408
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201407
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201405
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201404
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201403
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201401
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201312
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201311
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201310
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201309
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/healthcaredesign/201308
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com