Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 21

THE RELATIONSHIP OF LIGHTING CONTROL
TO THE GOALS OF PRODUCTION
Of the possible arguments for the continued
existence of live theatrical performances in an
age and society where mechanically reproduced
performances offer the advantages of greater reliabi lity and lower admission prices, the most important is the conviction that there is something
worthwhile in the spontaneous interaction among
actors and audience which creates a unique ex·
perience of the drama at each performance. Although the lines, the business and the scenic
investiture are in large measure alike in each
performance, it is the subtle differences as the
performers interact with one another and with
the audi ence, wh ich creates the exc itement of
live theatre.
If each performance is in fact to be a un ique
creation, not only must the actors be free to
interact among themselves and with the audience,
but there must be the possibility of a reciprocal
action among all elements of production. One
way in wh ich performances may vary is through
the intelligent modification of the appearance of
actors and scenery by changes within the lighting design.
Deviation of one night's performance from another
should not be encouraged for its own sake, but
must be allowed for if the maximum affective
potential of live performances is to be realized.
The contemplated variation wi II always be an
attempt to increase perception of the drama and,
therefore, must be carried out to complement the
actor as chief communicator. By giving the scenery and properties the flexibi lity previously
reserved for the actor, lighting can make all
visual aspects interact in the performance of the
drama. Certainly this is preferable to the actor's
presentation before an unyielding scenic background.
It will be helpful to consider the relationship between what we mean by a "lighting design" and
operation of the control system. A lighting design
may be thought of either as a selection of instruments, cue sheets and dimmer settings or as
a moment by moment specification of what is to
be shown to the audience. When the design is i::onsideredtobeamasterplanforpresenting the drama
in a consciously designed vi sual form, the control
system must be sufficiently flexible to permit
changes which arise from circumstances particular to this performance. To comprehend the entire
visual communication and to maintain this communication at its highest possible level under
performance conditions require of an operator
great intelligence and sensitivity. Not only must
he know the vi sua I statement to be made at each
moment and the distribution of light established
in rehearsal to effect it, but he must know his
equipment so intimately that the same impact can
be obtained using different dimmer settings and

MAY, 1965

different instruments. Such an operator is rare,
indeed. In our desire to simplify the essence of
the lighting design for less qualified operators,
too often we freeze the design in the form of
eas i Iy recorded and reproduced dimmer setti ngs
and forget that different aud iences present d ifferent communications situations.
If we believed the lighting design to be merely a
series of correctly positioned instruments actuated according to predetermined dimmer settings,
the control system could be a simple device for
reproducing distributions of light. More often
than not, in the theaire, we mi stake in strument layouts and dimmer settings for the lighting
design. Designers of control systems need to be
reminded, however, that the visual master plan
concept is the ideal in theatrical lighting and
that control systems should be designed accordingly.

PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS
The approach to lighting design has been too
little considered in the design of control systems.
Permanently connected resistance boards on
which each horizontal row of dimmers controlled
a separate color, whi Ie each vertical row controlled associated instruments were admirably
suited to the color wash method of lighting for
which they were designed. Most American educational theatre lighting designers use a more or
less elliptical area of the stage as the basic
lighting unit with relatively few instruments
focused on this area from the front, sides and
top of the stage. A sufficient number of master
dimmers should be provided to permit master
control of all the instruments lighting each area.
Thus systems used where the area method is
practiced should be fitted with many masters,
each controll ing on Iy a few instruments. 2 Theatres
where lighting is achieved predominantly by zones
stretching across the stage (as for ballet) or by
color washes may require fewer master controls,
each capable of controll ing a greater number of
individual instruments. Arena and multi-form
theatres may have other peculiar requirements
which affect the number and function of controls.
It should theoretically be possible to construct
a machine capable of any non-premeditated lighting change if only the right control is used, but
such a machine would be unbelievably complex
and unwieldy. The control system designer must
determine the degree of flexibi lity to be required
of his system.
Herein lies one important difference between a
lighting control system for a television studio
and for a theatre. A single performance permitting
only slight deviation by the actors and no interaction with the audience does not require the

2.

These

masters

may

themselves

be

levels for each lighting change.

21

preset

ot

different



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 36
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