Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 23

perform an extremely complex lighting score,
even under the pressures of performance. If,
however, the operator is expected not on Iy to be
prepared for emergencies, but to adjust the lighting to a given performance as well, then the
potential complexity of his task is greatly magnified. Investigations need to be carried out to
determine the degree of complexity which is
tolerable and the point at which a second operator becomes necessary.

dimmers which should be controlled together at
different locations on the control console. The
problem of grouping controls which are operated
together is further compl icated in theatres presenting plays in repertory when a basic instrument complement is used to provide most of the
light for the current repertory: groupings of instruments which make for easy operation of one play
may not be equally logical for the next.

THE MACHINE
An operator whose livelihood depends upon the
operation of a piece of control equipment may be
expected to be an effective performer on a highly
complex control system with correspondingly intricate impact on the audience. In schools, operators are typically drawn from classes in stagecraft and lighting. These students/ although interested/ have seldom had opportunities to work
with control systems beyond the most elementary; and typically have a week of rehearsal in
which they have not only to become familiar
with the lighting design, but with the control
system as we II. Under these c ircumstan ce s/ a
considerably lesser degree of complexity can be
encompassed by the operator and effectively
performed on the control system. At the other
end of the scale are those operators recruited
from the rejects who could not be cast in the
production. Their interest is often minimal and
their aptitude not much greater. Here it is necessary to design systems which are operator proof.
Inspection of lighting cue sheets indicates that
a majority of the dimmers for a typica I production
are being used as balance controls and do not
change their relative settings for long periods
of time or often at any time during a performance.
Resetting these controls for every preset scene
is a pointless labor which distracts the operator
from concentrat i on on the performance. One
solution to this problem is to connect several
dimmers and their instruments to the same controller, perhaps with the added refinement of
balance controls to maintain the relative intensities of the various instruments. The controller
on the console (in reality now a submaster) may
then be preset as are other dimmer controls.
Thus the console may contain a relatively small
number of "area masters" under the immediate
control of the operator rather than a large number
of individual dimmer controls.
The number and wattage of dimmers controlled
by each submaster must not be predetermined by
the system designer. For most efficient use of
equipment, lamp loads must approximate the
ratings of the dimmers to which they are connected, but often lamps of different wattages are
used on a single area. Most boards which permit
interconnection of dimmers and instruments have
dimmers of the same wattage grouped together
without regard for logical geographic, color or
mood groupings, thus either limiting the potential
usefulness of some of the dimmers or making
operations unnecessarily difficult by spacing

MAY,

1965

One of the problems plaguing operators of most
control systems is the amount of "busy-work"-work which if the control system were better designed need not take place. The most glaring example in preset control systems is the resetting
of individual controls for dimmers whose output
must not change from one preset scene to the
next. The usual answer has been to provide a
second operator to adjust the presets, leaving
the chief operator with only the master controls.
This answer is only partially satisfactory since
it leaves practical control of the individual instruments In the hands of a person who is not
expected to pay attent i on to the performance.
One solution is some form of flexible connection
between controls and dimmer channels?
If a
flexible interconnection is avai lable, the control
of dimmers of different wattages can be brought
together on the console in groups appropriate to
the control operations which must be carried on.
The desirability of flexible interconnection of
dimmers and controls is not necessarily dependent on the decision to mount dimmers in banks or
on battens near the instruments. The latter/ of
course, demands flexible interconnection, but the
capability for operating a selection of dimmers
in succession or for grouping instruments for
operation by a single control may be sufficient
reason for the flexible interconnection of dimmers mounted in conventional banks.
Often certain instruments are only used for a
short time during a performance. When these instruments are connected to a dimmer through the
usual interconnecting panel, it is usually more
convenient to leave that dimmer inactive through
the major portion of the performance than to connect other instruments to the dimmer when the
first instrument is not needed. Not only is this
procedure an inefficient use of equ ipment, but if
the dimmer is represented on the control console
by a controller for each preset it presents one
more confounding element which the operator
must have constantly before him as a source of
of potential error and annoyance. If preset load
programming systems were incorporated to permit
a predetermined sequence of instruments to be
connected to a particular dimmer, this inefficiency and potential source of error cou Id be eliminated.
5. Different plug'in dimmers may be used in the same channel ot various times.

23



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 36
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http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com