Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 3

Two Tendencies in the Evolution of Theatre Architecture
(Part 1)
V. BYKOV, ARCHITECT, Senior Scientist of Architecture, Soviet Architectural Institute
{translated by John Gat and Ned A. Bowman}
(EDITOR'S NOTE: THE INSTITUTE IS ANXIOUS TO PRESENT AS BROAD A SPECTRUM OF VIEWPOINTS AS POSSIBLE. WHILE SOME AUTHORS' OPINIONS WILL NOT BE
SHARED BY THE EDITOR OR OUR EDITORIAL STAFF,
WE ARE AGREED THAT THE JOURNAL SHOULD SERVE
AS A FREE FORUM FOR ALL ARTICULATE AND RELEVANT OPINIONS.
THIS ARTICLE ORIGINALLY APPEARED IN THE OFFICIAL SOVIET ARCHITECTURE PERIODICAL ~
TEKTURY SSSR, NO.8 (1964), PP. 11-28.)

During recent years much attention has been
given by major publications and architecture
periodicals abroad to the problems of design and
construction of new theatre buildings. International competitions, exhibitions of designs, and
specia I conferences have been organi zed for
discussing theatre architecture problems, with
the participation of such well-known architects
as Ie Corbusier, Gropius, Aalto and others. Even
so, the volume of new building construction especially for theatre production is not great.
The capitalistic world is characterized by the
intensification of a crisis facing its dramatic and
scenic art. For there, the legitimate theatre is
losing its importance, and is unable to compete
with the more popular and more readily available
mass media shows and entertainment such as
the cinema, television, musicals, etc. To meet
these conditions, new means of scenic expression
are being sought which might somehow "galvanize" the dying art of the theatre, resu Iting in
shows which are superficially effective, pungent,
and unusual. A considerable part of this search
is directed towards new staging techniques, including the employment of automatic devices:
electronic, stereophonic and illumination effects,
etc., as well as towards the possibilities open
to the contemporary theatre architect.
The present state of scenic art in the capitalistic countries is dominated by a formalism which
negates the social role of the theatre and its
realistic traditions. Some of the world's architects have attempted to resol ve the severe cri sis
wh ich faces modern arch itecture. Others are content to create "theatres of the future" which
have little, if any basis in the past 2500 years
of human endeavor in the theatre. Their aspirations result in weird spatial volume relationships
among bui Iding components, definite rejection of

MAY, 1965

ABSTRACT: Two tendencies are evident in
contemporary theatre architecture. A "formalistic" tendency is reflected in preoccupations
with form, which frequently are not grounded in
practical theatre experience. Simultaneously,
advances based on modification of the proscenium theatre's space requirements are symptoms
of a more positive "realistic" trend. (I.R.Code:
ARCHITECTURE/THEORY).

the deep picture frame stage and principles of
its technological equipment and planning, and
attempts to find a new relationship between the
stage space and spectators. To be sure, not a II
new theatre designs reflect these characteri stics;
as a rule, however, a majority of them are based
on rejection of the traditional principles of
creating a stage play.
Even in the nineteen-twenties, research on
theatre building reform was being conducted by
such outstanding directors as Reinhardt, Piscator,
Meyerhold and others. Their suggestions for any
particular innovation in technology or theatrical
space were always related to some novel staging
design concept. In contrast to these, a majority
of the present "innovator's projects" bear a very
abstract or formal, eclectic character without
any real foundation in thoughtfully conceived and
logically assembled dramatic production. I would
set aside from serious consideration immediately
the designs of the "ultra-left wing"uthe fruit of
unbounded architectural imagination which is
not intended for any existing production philosophy. Another broad group presents theatre bui Idings and designs in which purely formal "novelty" of the building's composition is based on the
conventional organization of the auditorium and
stage, and which have substantially nothing new
to offer.
As the most characteristic examples of the first
category, I would cite certain theatre designs
shown at an exhibition organized in the Arsenal
Library in Paris during October, 1962. Here,
incidentally, was also represented the work of
such outstanding masters of architecture as Van
der Rohe, Ie Corbusier, Gropius and others. I
would cite also the work shownatan international
conference in Athens in 1962, which was devoted
to the problems of theatre architecture.

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - 2
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Theatre Design & Technology - May 1965 - Contents
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