Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 6

opera house, taxpayers have been breathing a little
easier, for reconstruction was on a pay-as-you-go
basis. 1963's tab was nearly $2,500,000. That was
in addition to the operating budget. Ordinari Iy ten to
twelve new productions are mounted each year, most
of them lavishly so. No less than sixty opera mountings are a Iways ready to be set up, when schedu led
in the weekly program. Twenty more are in storage.
On the new stage, however, extensive redesigning or
entirely new productions have become necessary.
That has meant greater expenses. Fortunately, when
maney runs perilously short, the Bavarian Parliament
may vote a special funds bill to cover any deficits.
It has happened before and can happen again. Unlike
many American legislators, the Bavarians are fiercely proud of their cultural institutions and are willing
to support them.
Perhaps the most astonishing thing about the new
National Theatre is not its phenomenal cost, its
neo-classic style, or its interesting history. Behind
the great curtain which separates the 19th from the
20th century lies the 'opera's most fascinating
attraction: its technical equipment. Just as no expense was spared to recreate the past in foyer and
auditorium, so also has money been lavished to
install every kind of device imaginable. The proscenium opening is hardly the world's largest-fiftythree feet wide and forty-three feet high-but that is
still impressive. More impressive, the main stage is
a hundred-and -five feet wide and eighty-seven feet
deep, qu ite large enough to stage a fu II-sca Ie batt Ie,
or Aida, which was given a new production the first
season. Most of the stage floor is composed of three
immense hydraulic elevators. These not only rise
and sink-four meters each way-but they a Iso ti It
forward and backward to create various raked stage
stage effects. Beneath them is a travelling elevator
for spec ia I effects.
As if that stage were not enough, behind it lies
another stage almost as large. This can be used to
extend the stage picture to a seemingly infinite
depth as is done at La Scala and Bayreuth. It can
also be used for setting up scenery for future acts.
In fact, there arEl two more extra stages. Next to the
main stage is a huge side stage. Behind it and joining the rear stage is yet another enormous stage.
Neither of the side stages will be used for scenic
illusion-nor can they be seen by the audience. Their
sole purpose is for the setting of scenery. Two great
iron curtains cut the main stage off from the three
other areas, muffling carpenter noises during performance. Behind the metal shield, the coming scenes
are being mounted on vast wagons, seven in all, also
hydraulically controlled. Each is 19' 0" by 65' 0" ,
and covered with sturdy two-inch planking which
conceals many sets of wheels mounted at right angles
to each other. A press of a button makes one system
of casters elevate the wagon so it can roll noiselessly up and downstage. Another button can bring a
different caster system into operation so the wagon
will move easily from side to side. Since the elevators-thirty tons each-can lift three hundred tons of

6

singers and scenery, the weight of the wagons when
they are ready to move is tremendous. Under a II of the
stages are systems of Ketten-hugh chain links which
look like nothing so much as overgrown bicycle
chains-which will silently maneuver the wagons.
They run in troughs at right angles to each other,
but the up-downstage chains must be drawn clear of
the understage into channels running up the backstage walls before the right-to-Ieft chains can operate, and vice versa. This system has been called "a
kind of revolving stage in square form". Provisions
have been made for hand operation, should there be a
mechanical failure. Still, the complex hydraulic control mechanisms in the wagons are securely sealed
under solidly, tongue and grooved planks. A failureand the possibility can never be ruled out, even with
the newest mach inery-m ight mean the wagon wou Id
have to be ripped apart to find the trouble spot.
The technical staff of the state opera is obviously
enthusiastic about the equipment. Emi I Buchenberger,
the genial, energetic Technical Director, is justly
proud. But elsewhere in Munich there are theatre
technicians who are strongly critical of the installation. Not only is the neo-classic reconstruction objected to by some people, but the great expense of
the machinery is also frowned upon. "The theatre,"
says one of them, "is still actors; the opera, singers
and musicians. Why all these mechanical monsters?
Art will disappear in technology".
That comment touches a sore spot in German theatrical sensitivity. The major claim of Germany in theatre art today is the excellence of production, the
highly developed technical ski II of her stages. Permanently bui It-in devices which have on Iy temporary
use can be disastrous. What can be achieved with the
elevators and wagons depends on the ski II of the
designers and Herr Buchenberger's remarkable staff.
There are some disquieting warnings from the past
about stage machines which are not forgotten in
Munich. In the Prince Regent Theatre basement, in
fact, one can sti II see the expensive folly of the
arch itect: a complete set of meta I "chari ots" IS
standing in place, ready to move scenery in the
manner of the 18th century theatre-even though thi s
house was erected in 1901, long after that method of
shifting scenes was abandoned. In 1896, Karl Lautenschlaeger built a revolving stage into the floor of the
intimate Cuvillies Theatre. It was supposedly the
first of its kind in Europe, but directors and designers found the stage itself almost too small to use
the turn-table to good effect. Professor Otto Linnebach decided to go Lautenschlaeger one better in
1933. He bui It a two-story revolving stage into the
National Theatre. Of course, he was "Herr Professor", so few could have opposed him. The late
Joerg Zimmerman, former T echnica I Director of
Munich's city theatre, the Kammerspiele, recalls
having made some rash criticisms as a very junior
student and co-worker. He has said he was surprised
that Linnebach dismissed the possibi lity that it
might not work as theorized. To the professor's proud
assertions that the turntable could carry four-hundred
InmT

Tur HOC

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1965 - 36
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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