Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 3

Theatre Un ions
JAMES L. NUCKOLLS, Century Lighting, Inc.
The author extends his sincere thanks to the following people
for their aid and approval during the writing of this paper:
Lambert Zuilkie - Actors' Equity Association; Hy Foine and
Mildred Grant - American Guild of Musical Artists; Gene
Buzzell - Hal Leyshon & Associates for the American Federations; Milton Weintraub - Association of Theatrical Press Agents
and Managers; Thomas Lay - IA TSE: Phi lip H. Burton, Mi Idred
Traube and Roger Sullivan - Society of Stage Directors and
Choreographers; Betty Coe Armstrong - United Scenic Artists;
and John Havens - post Chairman of the Committee for Theatre
Administration, USITT.

ABSTRACT: A description of nine major theatre
unions - their activities, operation, membership,
purposes, and jurisdiction,

INTRODUCTION There are over 320,000 artists and
craftsmen who work in the professional entertainment
industry and who also belong to one of the nine major
theatre unions, Unfortunately, many potential members
and prospective employers are baffled by the resulting system of organized creativity.
Which unions
control what and whom, how are they run, how does
one join, what is expected of the membership, why
do certain groups exist, and what do unions try to
achieve? Some union officials wonder if their own
members could answer these questions - particularly
when they refer to sister groups,

THE MODEL There are some similarities existing
in most union structures.
Operations are usually
based on a constitution, by-laws, and a book of rules,
Occasionally, practices vary from the statements
contained in these documents. In such a case, the
regulations may be under revision (some have been
for a remarkable length of time).

Blame for the confusion rests partly with the unions
themselves, for the movement has never collectively
or precisely defined its role. As an example, some
groups feel that the market naturally imposes membership limitations; others try to accommodate all performers who practice certain theatrical skills. We
find unions who feel that their primary job is to protect the worker from unscrupulous practices, while
others believe they are also appointed to assure
quality and arti stic integrity.
It is difficult for an outsider to detail the actual purpose or success of the whole movemerlt, particularly
when he relies on the unions for his information.
While many are willing or even anxious to allow study
which justifies their position, there are those whose
only comment is "no comment," This reticence is
understandable, Like all public organizations, unions
are sensitive to adverse or unrestrained criticism.
Of course, people of critical mind need only recall
what theatrical employment was like before union
con tro I.
Fortunately, such confusion is not a basic issue in
this article. We have not attempted a critique of the
union idea, its effectiveness, or its past behavior;
instead we have limited our work to sorting out and
describing the activities of the major theatre employee associations.
We are considering only nine unions in this report.
The Italian and Hebrew Actors Unions are not discussed because they are small, highly specialized
associations representing particular nationalities.

May 1966

I. R. Code (Employee Relations)

The Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers
(SSDC, see the Table of Initials) does not have a
constitution; it operates on by-laws alone. However,
a constitution is still typical.
It always contains
items which are stable, such as the name of the organization, its "purpose" or "objed," provision for
the election and enumeration of offi.:ers, a definition
of the eligible membership, and specifies the important meetings-always including an annual convention,
The method of disbanding the union,
jurisdiction, and the process of constitutional
amendment a Iso appear.

INITIALS AND WHAT THEY MEAN

AAAA

Associated Actors and Artistes of America

AEA

Actors' Equity Association

AFM

American Federation of Musicians

AGMA

American Guild af Musical Artists

AGVA

American Guild of Variety Artists

ATPAM Association of Theatrical Press Agents and Managers
HUA

Hebrew Actors Union

IA TSE

International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees
and Motion Picture Machine Operators of the
Uni ted ~totes and Canada

IAU

1--.:Ilion Actors Union

SSDC

Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers, Inc.

USA

United Scenic Artist!

3



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 5
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