Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 33

BOOK REVIEWS
(Pers..ons wishinQ to review appropriate new book titles

contoct Associote Editor Thomas Wotson, Crosby Hall,
University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y. 14214.)

should

State

PROJECTED SCENERY, A TECHNICAL MANUAL.
By Thomas Wilfred, New York: The Drama Book
Shop, 1965; pp. 59. $5.50
Thomas Wilfred, creator of the art form Lumia,
inventor of the Clavilux, founder and director of the
Art Institute of Light, has turned author. It would
be pleasant to report that hi s book reflects the
considerable knowledge that Mr. Wilfred should have
on this subject and presents it in a manner that
will be useful to the untrained and inexperienced,
but such is hardly the case. It is not even a new
book, but a more presentable edition, with a very
few and unimportant changes, of an earlier work
published by Mr. Wilfred's own Art Institute of Light.
The fifty-nine pages of the new edition as against
th e th irty- fi ve of the 0 Id are large Iy accounted for
by twenty-two pages completely blank except for
the heading "Personal Notes". The renumbering of
the pages is not always reconci led in the text.

The matter of lighting the actor, surely the most
important duty of the lighting designer, is passed
over briefly. A pair of sectional drawings indicate
how, by extremely careful focusing, no beam from
the spotlight would hit the image screen directly.
While an ellipsoidal reflector instrument would seem
indicated here, the drawings show Fresnels, which
could never be shaped to the sharp cut-off necessary.
On the basis of the drawings provided, it is indio
cated that with a rear projection on a stage twentyfour feet deep from the proscenium wall, the actor
may play and be front-lighted twenty feet upstage;
but this front lighting, to avoid hitting the screen,
would have to be at least as close to the vertical
as 19° -. hardly an ideal angle l With front projection
the front lighting angle wou Id be considerably
better, but the actor would be able to play only
seventeen feet upstage (the drawing says" 18", but
it scales to seventeen), thus wasting 29% of the
playing depth of the stage. It must be remembered
that these calculations Lre all based on the dimensions, presumably ideal, provided by the author.
There follows a cursory treatment of the basic principles of lens projection, and then the author
launches into a more detailed description of a
special application of it: a projector which (by
virtue of an angled mirror to reflect the image on an
upstage screen) can be mounted parallel to a batten,
thus occupying a minimum of flying space. This
might be a dandy piece of machinery if one is
committed, as Mr. Wilfred seems to be, to the practice
of always using projections from the same spot and
onto the same surface for every producti on: an
uninspiring prospect.

Probably the most serious weakness of the book is
Mr. Wi Ifred's refusal to acknowledge that because a
projected design is light and not paint, it has a very
different color range and value scale from bui It
scenery, with colors more intense and more dramatic
than pigment. There is a definite tendency for
projections to "take stage," to become "actors,"
in a surprisingly real sense. In the light of this, the A great deal is made of a "color modifier", which
final sentence of the book is almost incredible: neither text nor drawing explains except that it
"If at the final curtain no one in the audience has "permits . . . transition from day, through sunset,
realized that the settings were projected, well - so to night" by means of "two colors fused in glass".
Presumably this is some sort of mechanical dimming
much the better!"
system which would seem to result in less accurate
The first pages of the book, contain some practical
and aesthetic effects than could be readily accomobservations on rear and on front projection probplished by dimming the projector's lamp and simul·
lems, with an enlightening comparison between the
taneously employing color washes, top and bottom,
two. This would have been a more useful start if
on the screen.
it did not seem to consist of random notes. Then,
too, it contains several statements of at least This same complaint may be lodged against a
questionable accuracy. Surely no opaque screen slightly different {or so it appears to be} "color
reflects "practically 100% of the intensity", nor modifier" recommended in the next subject covered:
can we really believe in "a coat of white Cal so- the direct beam projector which is merely a specialmine . . . reflecting almost 100% of the initial light", ized application of an established type of projection
unless one considers that 88% is "practically" or usually employing the Linnebach "lantern". Wilfred's direct beam projector (and he is not the sole
"almost" the same as 100%.
booster for this type of device) does have a certain
Conversely, it is suggested that the stage floor be
ingenuity based on the fact that any line or other
painted or stained black to absorb the acting area marking on a slide held in front of a light source
light so that it wi II not be reflected onto the screen will throw a very fuzzy shadow when placed close
on which the projected image is to be seen. This to the source, but a sharper one if held further
is fine in theory, but experience should show that away. This phenomenon can easily be demonstrated
no matter how black a stage floor is made, by what- using one's hand and a desk light. Advantage is
ever process, the feet of actors will quickly change taken of this: two or more slides being used simit to a medium gray with a reflection ratio some- ultaneously, the further one showing foreground
where around 30%, which is enough light to spoil details, the nearer depicting the distant scene,
all but the most brilliontly lighted image.
thus achieving a sort of aerial perspective.

May 1966

33



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1966 - 36
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
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