Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 13

regular structural design of a building or to the final cost
of the installation itself.
One must realize, however, that what is being created is
a combination of structures and machinery which, while
small, is a novel and complex facility containing many
essential elements all of which must be carefully selected
and evaluated.
This can be further complicated by unusual geometry. A
straight line is very often a rarity. In essence, this means
that the selection of a beam of Iighter weight takes as
much time as the selection of a heavier one. And even
more time may be consumed if the beam is curved, which
is not an uncommon requirement for stage equipment design.
The same laws that govern other construction and machinery design are also applicable here. A thorough design,
documented by accurate drawings, can certainly reduce the
overall costs and minimize any possible future problems.
As proven throughout industry, making changes on paper
is less costly than paying for overtime if the modifications
are made in the field.
Another reason good engineering practices are especially
important in stage work is the lack of definite building
code provisions in this area. A special stage installation
may not fit under any specific building code provision.
And there have been cases in which large movable structures have been erected without proper review, simply
because they could not be classified under anything in
the code. On thEl other hand, almost impossible restrictions have been placed on some movable structures and
have seriously restricted their use.
This is an area of many contradictory code interpretations,
and as a result it is seldom known beforehand just which
jurisdictions and provisions are applicable to a particular
installation.
While the purpose of building codes is to establish guidelines and minimum safety requirements in order to protect
the public, they should also permit the advancement of
new ideas. Thus, general safety requirements, while essential, must also be realistic.
It should be accepted that sometimes the unusual or unconventional solution to a problem is the safe and the
right one. One cannot compare, for example, a movable
floor or stage lift with a high-speed passenger elevator,
or a movable ceiling with the stage scenery, and apply
identical regulations to all these installations. Yet this is
exactly what is often done.
I must admit that it would be difficult to establish standards to cover every specific type of installation. However,
some guidelines can certainly be drawn to make it possible to fully utilize the flexibility which can be provided by stage installations while at the same time maintaining adequate safety standards.

It is obvious that the standards should also take into
account the purpose and location of a facility, since the
requirements for stage installations which are used during
the performance are certainly different from those which
are used in the auditorium. This is an area in which the
manufacturers, designers and consultants, should get together to establish a set of self-regulating rules which
would not only protect the reputable firms and individuals
in this field, but would also reduce the risks to the owner
and protect the general public.
This could certainly be accomplished within the framework
of the USITI. I am also confident that a carefully written,
self-regulating code can, in the future, become a part of
various national and local building codes and thereby
eliminate many problems which now exist.
At the conclusion of my presentation, I would like to
emphasize that there is no easy, shortcut method which
would make a stage installation perform unlimited functions. Therefore, whether we like it or not, technical details can sometimes influence the overall concept of a
theatre.
No design has ever been accomplished without restrictions. And while everything is certainly possible in theory,
complete theatre flexibility or excessive mechanization can
make the construction budget frightening and forbidding.
On the other hand, effective mechanization and wise
budgeting, coupled with a certain degree of flexibil ity, can
and will reduce future operating costs.
Naturally, care must be exercised in this area, as initial
mistakes can be very costly indeed and can affect the
function of the entire theatre.
Much responsibility here lies with
is the final co-ordinator of all the
therefore, be thorough, demanding,
make certain that everything will

the architect, for he
systems. He must,
and circumspect to
work as promised.

Outstanding accomplishments are always the result of
careful planning. And in the case of mechanical equipment, a simple end product is usually the trademark of
good careful engineering.
Yet, a simple technical solution to a problem is not always the most obvious one, and it cannot be achieved
without hard work and a co-ordinated effort on the part
of all involved!
Therefore, co-operation through knowledge and understanding should be the motto of the people who design and
build the theatres of today and of tomorrow, so that the
performing arts may continue to grow in the years to
come.
Movable structure for Vivian Beaumont Theatre, Lincoln Center. Executed by Olaf SOOt. Drawing copyright, Olaf SOOt. 1965.

General guidelines can certainly define the basic requirements for various operating systems, and some specific
requirements can be established for critical components.
For example, permanent movable structures supported by
cables should not be allowed to fail because of a single
cable failure. And other fail-safe features should prevent a
sudden fall in case of a hoisting system breakdown.
Minimum safety factors should be established and standardized impact load factors can be determined based on
speed of travel, structural deflections, or possible shock
loads which may be applied by fail-safe devices. In some
other applications, dangerous situations would not be
caused by breakdown. Instead slow drifts, overtravels and
excessive structural deflections must be avoided.

OCTOBER 1966

13



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 43
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Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 47
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 48
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 49
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