Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 29

There are several solutions to most problems and I believe that the owner should be presented, and the operator - I speak of the owner and the operator; sometimes
they are the same people and sometimes they are partners in crime - these two should be presented with a
minimum scheme, a maximum scheme and in intermediate scheme. And that IS in the very early days, the very
rough layouts.
I do not mean minimum and maximum or intermediate
necessarily in terms of dollars, although the financial
limitation is, of course, applicable. I mean it to refer to
the degree of sophistication, the degree of automation,
the assurance against failure of any of its components
and the cost of both operation and maintenance.
Speaking of sophistication and autOmation, I wanted to
mention the use of new developments or innovations.
Unless absolutely proven and foolproof beyond question,
I believe that the designer does himself an unjustice and
the client a disservice to recommend anything of this
nature in a new building. The client is on the spot and
so is the designer when a new theatre opens. The problems of completing construction, organizational staffing
and familiarization are enough to contend with. Why add
some potential troublemaker~ I would far rather see a
tried-and-true item used, with a provision for a later
changeover to the new item, when the newness of the
building has worn off a bit.
I do not mean a change in a lamp, a change in some one
individual item: I mean a new concept, the introduction
of a new concept entirely on the stage or in the lighting
controls. Those should be held to be tried out in an
operating, accepted theatre, not become part of the problem of opening week.
I am all for progress and for the development of better
techniques, but not at the risk of failure in the early
operation of a new facility. A key item of new or unusual
design may fail to work, or it may prove not quite as
good as planned. If you do get it in, you should provide for an alternate so the show can go on if it is not
quite what you expect it to be. Theatre operating personnel are usually very resourceful, but the designer must
build in the means for them to revert to their old or normal practice if the gadget fails to satisfy or fails in toto.
A high degree of mechanization and sophistication calls
for qualified staff personnel, for both operations and maintenance. It must be ascertained that such qualified personnel will be available and the operator can afford to
hire them.
Specifications when written must be carefully prepared to
require the furnishing of complete written instructions for
both operations and maintenance, as well as to provide
adequate instructional and initial maintenance period. It
should be the designer's responsibility to ensure the
adequacy of these.
Also, when proposing highly mechanized or sophisticated
facilities, this deSigner should fully delineate the operation and maintenance requirements to the user and operator, and to the buyer. This IS frequently passed over very
lightly to the later dismay of the operator.
Teamwork: the first point on teamwork IS in connection
with the consultant's relationship with the architect.
Naturally it would be expected that the theatrical consultant would have to work out operational problems and
details and discuss them with the probable user or operator. But the technical details of coordination in overall
design and construction are the provlllce of the architect.

OCTOSE R 1966

He alone is responsible for the evaluation of the completed building, including the work designed and followed
through, but the theatrical consultant is part of his team.
These buildings are built and re-designed and built by
a team; if the architect is not the captain, then you very
often have to end up in the second division.
After the design is completed and you get into construction, the architect is still the captain. He has a co-captain, and that is the contractor, the general contractor.
I think the architect must follow through everything the
contractor does. The administration of the contracts and
the sub-contracts is the direct responsibility of the contractor and it is essential that the consultants team up
with the contractor and help him to be the boss on the
job and to get the job carried through.
It has been my experience in New York that the last
man out of the building almost every time - no, not almost, but every time - is the electrician working on the
stage wiring and controls. He is the last man out.
lt seems that this is inevitable, but perhaps the length
of time he is there after the next-to-the last man gets
out might be shortened through closer and more effective coordination between the stage designer and the
contractor. It might produce better handling of shop drawing approvals. It might advance procurement and improve
the scheduling of related and adjacent trade or work
forces to enable the stage work to get through and get
that electrician the devil out of there.
You must realize that this has happened to me. In fact,
it has happened in every theatre I have built so far.
I have been surprised by the great difficulties encountered by designers with respect to seating. Perhaps my
experiences are unusual, but sight lines, lighting, aisle
lighting, audience comfort, audience safety and acoustic
values, have seemed to cause no end of problems. The
number of balcony-railing revisions after designs have been
approved for construction - and sometimes after installation - is tremendous. They would seem unnecessary if
adequate consideration had been given to the problem
during the early stages of design.
The answers I hear most frequently are that too much
priority was placed on appearance, that safety requirements
were overriding, or that the seating design changes affected the original layouts and someone forgot to recheck
them.
Balcony rails have been the bane of my existence in
nearly every building I have put up. They are adjusted,
but it takes time and It takes money.
As for seat lighting - or aisle lighting - I will just say that
the completely new concepts of seats which seem to be
developed by those who prefer something different from
off-the-shelf seats, seems to preclude the use of proven
and standard aisle lights. Aesthetics seem to have overridden good sense, and it IS always a problem.
The most successful solution we have had was in the
one small theatre, where we bought standard seats. The
lighting was perfect every time. When we designed
special seats we lI\ent through weeks of organizing, readjustment, re-appralsal, re-wlring and changing of the
fixtures.
Audience comfort and acoustics are natural conSiderations
in the deSign and acceptance of seating.
evertheless,
each time the questions arise, I fllld the same deliberations, the same diScussions, always ending with different solutions.
I thlllk the best solution we have had, as I have said

29



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Oct 1966 - 38
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