Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 20

value occurs at the center of the beam, the adjustment rarely is considered useful. Therefore, the uniformity adjustment
always is tempered by a consideration of maximum intensity
and the shape of the intensity distribution curve. Most users
come to a reasonable agreement on the adjustment for any
instrument, particularly when the application is known. However, a single set of photometric data cannot be considered
absolutely accurate to the degree by which it can be measured.

BEAM PROJECTORS: The beam projector is an instrument
in which a light source is located at the focal point of a
reflector having a parabol ic cross-section. The instrument provides a narrow, high intensity beam of nearly parallel light.
Multiple, adjacent instruments often are used to provide
nearly parallel light representing sunlight or similar effects.
Also, the beam projector is used for general lighting when
the luminaires must be at a distance greater than can be
handled by other instrument types.

STRIPLIGHTS: The term striplights is used in this paper to
refer to a row of lights such as footlights, borderlights,
x-rays, cyc strips, etc. These luminaires are used in sections
or in long rows to provide general illumination. Usually they
are designed to meet a given performance pattern by a
combination of a lamp and reflector or by reflector lamps.
The lamp and reflector can be designed for any beam spread
from narrow to wide flood. Standard incandescent lamp designs may have a low efficiency because of large filaments
or multiple reflections within the large glass bulbs; these
factors can cause light to spill out of the areas where the
illumination is desired. Reflector lamps can provide beam
changes through lamp choice, but these lamps are inherently
inefficient.

The beam spread and light pattern of beam projectors are
determined by the light source geometry in relation to the
focal length and diameter of the paraboloid reflector. Standard incandescent lamps of high wattage have large open filaments and large lamp envelopes. As a first order approximation, the size of the filament determines the size of the
beam; the maximum spread of the beam is equal to the
angle of the source subtended at the apex of the reflector. 5
The tungsten-halogen lamp has a smaller, more compact filament and a much smaller envelope than the standard incandescent lamp at a given wattage and life rating. Further,
the average filament brightness of these tungsten-halogen
lamps is greater.

Typical values of utilized lumens from incandescent type
strips would be 8 to 10 lumens per lamp watt. In the case
of lighting a cyclorama or another area which is closely defined, this value may be reduced to 4 to 8 utilized lumens
per lamp watt. Tungsten-halogen lamps provide a method of
increasing these values because of the small filament and
bulb size. Figure 2 is an example of such a luminaire. It
combines a small 250 watt, single-ended tungsten-halogen
lamp with a reflector designed to produce an efficient floodlight pattern. This experimental luminaire produces 14 lumens
per lamp watt despite its small size.

Figure 3. Adjustable beam striplight utilizing 500 to 1000 watt
tungsten-halogen lamps on 8 inch centers. Control is provided by
the combination of a reflector and a lens; the lens of the center
section has been removed to show the lamp. The variable beam size
can be controlled by moving the lamp sockets.

Various reflectors can be designed to provide different beam
patterns. Figure 3 is an example of a luminaire that utilizes
500 to 1000 watt tungsten-halogen lamps. This luminaire
can be adjusted from a 26 degree beam with more than 10
lumens per lamp watt to a 90 degree beam of almost 15
lumens per lamp watt. These designs have symmetric beam
patterns; however, asymmetric patterns also could be obtained through modified reflector designs.

Figure 2. Striplight utilizing 250 watt. 500 hour. 31 OooK color temperature. tungsten-halogen lamps. In this design the field angle of
each section is 75° and produces a maximum intensity of 8600
candlepower.

20

THEATRE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 43
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1968 - 44
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com