Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1969 - 16

From the 1969 US/TT Conference:

Observations on
in Northern
WILLARD F. BELLMAN
San Fernando Valley State College
(This paper has been developed from a presentation
at the USITT Convention. Spring. 1969 in Hollywood.
Editor}

These observations are based on a sabbatical leave spent in Germany, Austria,
Switzerland, Czechoslovakia, and Holland
in 1967-68. They are the result of visits
to many prominent theatres, discussions with
artists and technicians, and conferences with
several free lance designers in that area.
They enjoy the advantage of repeated visits
and extended conversations. However, no
one should suppose that this study was
either exhaustive or highly systematic. Much
depended on the whims of weather and
interlocking schedules.
The art of scenic projection is more advanced in Northern Europe than it is in
the USA. The Technology of scenic projection shows remarkable advances and deplorable lapses in both places. There seems
to be no doubt that the European theatre
uses projection more often and more casually than the American theatre. This is
particularly true of opera, but also applies
to the dramatic theatre.
Let us consider artistic matters first: In the
USA it is considered newsworthy if more
than two or three projectors are used in a
single production. This was recently demonstrated by the news release in Los Angeles
about the use of eight projectors in a production of Hair opening there. Our European
compatriots have long since outgrown this
level. For example, I have in my files a
picture taken backstage at a production of
Die Freischutz which shows twenty-six projectors of various wattages and types assembled for one scene in that production.
No one found this a newsworthy matter in
Europe in spite of the fact that still more
projectors were used during the other sce;les
of that production. The point is that the
European theatre no longer considers projection a new and therefore unusual addition to the array of techniques available to
its designers. Instead of being a separate
and unique item, it is blended into the
entire palette of available techniques. Projection is often at its very peak of artistic
merit when it has been so eHectively blended
into the entire production that the members
of the audience are completely unaware
that they are witnessing its use. Heightened
and expanded dramatic impact is the goal.

16

Two Styles: It is possible to divide the current productions in Northern Europe into two
broad stylistic categories: (1) post Brechtian didacticism and (2) post Appian Gesamptkunstwerken. I am at a loss for an
exact English term for Gesamptkunstwerk.
The German word stems from the works
of Richard Wagner and application of his
theories describes the form exactly. Its
essence is found in a ruthless application
of the highest possible standard of artistic
unity. A unifying element is agreed upon
(almost always from the script) and all
elements of production are then trimmed,
augmented or even suppressed in the interest of that unifying element. Obviously
there is nothing very new about the general application of this principle-most of
the theatrical eHorts of the past sixty years
have given at least lip service to this very
idea. What is new is the degree to which
this is being carried out and the high level
of artistry and technology which is being
brought to bear in the process. Indeed, it
seems likely that for the first time since
Musique et la Mise en Scene was written
by Appia in the late 1890's, its artistic
and technological demands may be reasonably well met.
Scenic projection has become a very important ingredient in many of these productions because it combines the possibility of carefully controlled imagery with
the fluidity of movement and the wide range
of blending possible through the dimming
and crossfading of projectors. It also provides the designer with a more direct control over the finished product, since it is
quite possible for him to prepare the slides
for projection-much more possible than
it is for him to paint the enti,e selling.

Fig. 7: Production shot of Andrej Majewski's design for Mozart's The Magic Flute, Wiesbaden,
Germany S taatth eater, 7967-68 season. I/Iustrates the use of projection combined with painted
gauze drops.

Figs. 2 and 3: Design and hand painted slide by
Analies Corrodi for Der Macht des Schicksaals
(Forza del Destino by Verdi. Wiesbaden, Germany Staattheater, 7967-68 season. Theseslides
illustrate the art of hand painting on glass and the
use of architectural elements in a setting done
by projection. Slide 2 is but one of several
which were combined to form a complete setting
Slide 3 formed the back of a similar setting for
an outdoor scene.

The artistic integration of scenic projection
into the Gesamptkunstwerken is the result
of several factors. First, the art of design
in Europe almost inevitably includes scenery,
lighting and costume-a II carefully controlled
by the same artist and executed by a number of highly trained, experienced craftsmen whose own artistry is rivaled by none.
Into the hands of this master designer come
the potentialities of scenic projection. In

@!!I:J

THEATER DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

DECEMBER, 1969



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