Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1969 - 12

Lighting in Miniature
ROBERT L. SEGRIN
San Francisco State College

Facade of the Model Stage
The use of model stage settings as an aid in visualizing
how the finished, full-size scenery will look has long been
invaluable to the scene designer, director and the cast. This
is especially true if the model is complete, accurate and
reasonably detailed. However, the model, like the finished
setting it represents, will not be completely significant until
it has been appropriately illuminated. Too often, model
settings, fabricated with considerable craftsmansh ip and faithful attention to detail, are viewed under crude lighting conditions. Just as the scene designer profits from his threedimensional miniature setting, so can the lighting designer
beefit by experimentation-if he has equally accurate miniature lighting instruments.
A set of model instruments was demonstrated at the 1962
American Educational Theatre Association convention in
Oregon by Paul Landry of Stanford University. Mr. Landry acknowledged even then that his model lighting system was
not a unique idea. This demonstration convinced the author
that here was an invaluable experimentation and demonstration device. Raymon T. Stansbury, a graduate student at San
Francisco State College, subsequently undertook a model
stage and minature lighting system as a graduate project
and a contribution to the school's stage lighting equipment.
The use of a model that faithfully represents the dimensions
and equipment of a typical production facility helps to solve
the problem of teaching a visually oriented subject under the
handicaps of a typical classroom. While there is no substitute for taking the students to the theatre for practical
demonstrations of typical and experimental lighting techniques and problems, the next best thing is to bring the
theatre to the students in the classroom. Thus, the double
value of working in miniature becomes even more important
in educational theatre. Students can see lighting theories
and approaches demonstrated by the instructor, and lighting
designers, regardless of experience, can experiment with
types of instruments, placement, hue and intensity before
implementing the finished lighting plot.
Practical considerations of the classroom size, visual acuity
and storage suggested an accurate model of the stage of the
San Francisco State College Little Theatre to a scale of
1" = 1'-0". The size of the miniature instruments was
also dictated by very practical conditions. Since the physical
size of even low-voltage lamps (deemed the only practical
light source for this project) represents a practical minimum,
and because adequate ventilation is required for the lamp
housings, a scale of approximately 2" = 1'-0" was used.
VVhile it would be ideal to hilve the instruments the same
scale as the model and attendant settings, this was deemed
impossible with available light sources and sockets.
Since the model represented the stage of the Little Theatre,
it was only natural to base the miniature lighting instruments
on the characteristics of the full-size instruments regularly
used in that facility. A limitation as to the quantity of each
instrument type was established, for the sake of the budget,
time and discipline. The initial coml'llement of miniature instruments included: 16 - 6" Fresnel spotlights; 6 - 8"
Fresnel spotlights; 12 - 6" ell ipsoidal spotlights; 8 - 10"

12

Beam Position with Mliliature Ellipsoidal Spotlights

beam
projectors
and 12 - 14" wide-angle floodlights
("scoops"). As a later phase of the project, a Linnebach
projector, a striplight and telescoping floor stands were
added.
Footcandle ratios, beam spreads and other pertinent characteristics were calculated in an attempt to make the miniature
versions as accurate, thus as meaningful to controll ed experimentation, as possible. Unfortunately, several voltages had
to be supplied to these different miniature lamps, ranging
from approximately 6 to 30 volts, thus complicating the
wiring and transformer units. Appropriate sockets were obtained, along with 35 mm plano-convex lenses, and small
connectors, resembling conventional pin connectors.

[]ill[] THEATRE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

FEBRUARY, 1969



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1969

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1969 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1969 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1969 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1969 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1969 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1969 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1969 - 7
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