Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 4

The Joys of Gas Lighting
RICHARD A. WILLIS
Northwestern University
Gas illumination was introduced into theatres almost as soon as it began to be used
for general illumination in city streets and
homes. Like incandescent lighting threequarters of a century later, gas was first
displayed on the stage as a novelty. Towbridge introduced gas at his museum in
Albany, New York in 1817, with an exhibition of the novel uses, some of them distinctly hazardous. to which gas could be
put: " ... Mr. Towbridge afterwards tried
various experiments with gas, such as collecting it in glasses, allowing persons to
inhale it, and upon application of fire a
bright
flame
would issue from their
mouths.'" The appeal to the public of the
new method of I ighting was so great, however, that gas was adopted for permanent
use in some theatres almost immediatelyand occasionally against the better judgment of the owners.
If facilities were not available to provide gas
to the municipality in general, gas had to be
manufactured privately for use in the theatre. The Chestnut Street Opera House in
Philadelphia had its own full-scale works.
"We now [1 81 6] fi rst in trodu ced gas at the
Philadelphia house, where extensive works
were erected, which was some years afterwards [April 2, 1820] destroyed by fire." 2
The city of Baltimore attempted to light
with gas in 1816, but its gas company was
not in successful operation until 1826. Gas
was introduced in Boston in 1822, in New
York in 1827, and in Philadelphia in 1835.
The theatre brought gas lighting to New
Orleans at Caldwell's Camp Street Theatre
on January 1, 1824, the first building to be
so lighted in that city.3 The machinery for
the gas works had been brought from England by a man named Simonds, one of the
first lighting engineers in the southern part
of the United States. *

Origli1al BotVery Thearre facade, NetV York,
(7826) by ArchileCI lihiel To\vne. Clalined
10 have firsl gas lighting in a lhealre audilorium in lhis coumry. (PhOlO courtesy New
York HislOrical Sociely, reproduced in THEATRE SURVEY (October 7965), p 23).

The introduction of gas lighting at the Bowery
Theatre in New York in 1826 was said to
have ushered in the American theatreS It
was a new period, indeed. The Bowery Theatre, first in New York to be lighted by gas,
was destined to burn nine times before it
was pulled down in 1930.
Gas lighting was attempted in the theatre
in Washington, D.C., in 1831. "The Theatre opened in December of that year under
the management of Joseph Jefferson the
second, father of 'Rip Van Winkle Joe.' In
improving the theatre portable gas lamps
were introduced, but they failed to work on
the opening night and the audience had to
be dismissed. Other lamps were provided
for the next night."6

A lavish central chandelier was the most
dazz ling featu re in the audi tori ums of th eatres lighted with gas. The chandelier was
the chief attraction at the improved California Theatre in San Francisco when it
opened on September 28, 1872. A similarly ostentatious fixture was to be seen at
Metropolitan Hall, also called Temple Theatre Republic, when it opened on August 5,
1877. "Two sunburners of 108 gas jets
each are suspended from the ceiling and lit
by electricity, to brilliantly illuminate the
room from pit to dome."12 These glittering gasel iers, the visual centers of the
auditorium, were a real nuisance to the
audience in the upper parts of the house.
The central chandeliers had to be hung fairly low in order to light the auditorium
properly, and they completely blocked the
view of those in the balconies. There was
also usually a row of lights attached to the
panels of the boxes. "The glow or heated
mist from the flames rises up into the faces
of those above, and the light and heat interfere with the view and comfort." 13

There was no gas lighting in Chicago theatres prior to 1850, when the first municipal
gas works were constructed. Apparently no
owner or manager felt strongly enough on
the subject to equip his theatre with a private works. 7 Many theatres in the United
States failed to install gas systems until
the demands of the public forced them to
do so because of the serious disadvantages
of gas lighting for the stage: it made the
auditorium hot; the glare interfered with a
view of the stage; the necessary tubing
created a clutter backstage; and there was
the constant danger from fire, particularly
during the "lighting up," the time when
the stage lights were ignited in preparation
for the performance. 8

Bram Stoker, chief lighting assistant to
Henry Irving, wrote a complete account of
Irving's arrangements for the use of gas in
the theatre. In theatres which were adequately lighted, the stage was literally filled
with open flames. 1* The dangers to which
theatres were exposed by this form of illumination were summarized by Steele
MacKaye in 1882:

Gas lighting was introduced in San Francisco on February 11, 1854. "The city was
first lighted with coal gas on the evening of
this day... Already about three miles of pipe
were laid in the streets, to be increased as
the public accommodation required ... The
'Metropol itan,' a few weeks after this date,
adopted the new light.' ? Maguire's Opera
House, built in November, 1856, on the
site of San Francisco Hall, was completely
lighted by gas, including a huge chandelier
in the auditorium. '0

The rigging loft is filled with draperies called
scenic borders. Among these hang long lines
of gas-pipes. provided with many burners.
constituting border I ights. A network 0 wire
covers these lights to prevent the borders
from coming in contact with the gas-jets. To
a large extent this network serves its purpose,
but the heat generated by the lights is so
intense that the rigging loft becomes dangerously dry and inflammable: and as the
men on the fly-floors are obliged to work the
rigging in grea haste, in set iog scenes between the acts. a very little carelessness on
their par is su ficient to start a fire. 15

John Drew wrote in his memoirs of one of
the peculiar characteristics of a theatre
which was lighted by gas:
When my mother took over the management
of the Arch Street Theatre [in Philadelphia],
it was all renovated and was in pretty air
condition for the time, but it had been built
in 1827 and had an unmistakable smell that
was unlike anything else. I do not kno\\
\'\'hether this came rom the gas fumes or a
combination of the gas fumes and the new
oaint on the scenery. . . . '1

In the auditorium, gas lights not only created
a great deal of heat, they also burned the
oxygen out of the air. On the stage, open
flames were a menace both to highly inflammable scenery and to costumes. It was
almost impossible to prevent gas leaks in
the permanent piping that served the theatre, or in the temporary flexible tubing used
on the stage. An electric spark device was
recommended for igniting the gas jets
throughout the theatre, but a flaming ball of
waste or an alcohol lamp on the end of a
long pole was the method most widely
used. '6 The torch method was employed
when Otis Skinner played at the Walnut

[]illCJ THEATRE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

MAY, 1969



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 32
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020winter_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019fall_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019summer_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019spring_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2019_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2019
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019winter_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018fall_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018summer_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018spring_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017fall_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017summer_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017spring_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2017_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2017
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017winter_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016spring_public
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2014fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2014summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975winter
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975fall
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975summer
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975spring
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com