Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 7

been some nostalgic yearning for the softer,
more mellow light of the gas flame on the
part of aging ac resses, there was never
any substantial opposition to the adoption of
electric light in the theatre; the advantages
were too readily apparent. As soon as electricity became mechanically and economically practicable, there was a general rush
to use it on the stage.

Works cited
1. Henry Dickinson, Personal Recollections of the
Drama, or Theatrical Reminiscences(Albany, 1873,
pp.222-223.
2. William Wood, Personal Recollections of the
Stage (Philadelphia, 1855). p. 206.
3. oah Miller Ludlow, Dramatic Life As I Found It
(St. Louis, 1880). p. 249.
4. John S. Kendall, The Golden Age of the New
Orleans Theatre (Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1952).
p.30.
5. Wesley Swanson, "Wings and Backdrops," Drama,
XVIII (October, 1927). 79.
6. A. I. Mudd, "Early Theatres in Washington City,"
Records of the Columbia Historical Society, VI
(1903).81.
7. J. H. McVicker, The Theatre; Its Early Days in
Chicago (Chicago, 1884). p. 69.
8. Swanson, op. cit., p. 79.

9. Frank Soule, John H. Gihon, and James Nisbet,
Annals of San Francisco (New York, 1855), p. 517.
10. Edmond M. Gagey, The San Francisco Stage,
A History ( ew York, 1950), p. 40.
11. John Drew, My Years on the Stage (New York,
1921). p. 34.
12. Lawrence Estavan, ed., San Francisco Theatre
Research Monograph (San Francisco, 1940). XVI,
87.
13. Percy H. Fitzgerald, The World Behind the Scenes
(London, 1881). p. 21.
14. Bram Stoker, "Irving and Stage Lighting," Nineteenth Century and After, LXIX (May, 1911). 903909.
15. Steele MacKaye, "Safety in Theatres," North
American Review, CXXXV (November, 1882), 464.
16. William Paul Gerhard, "The Essential Conditions
of Safety in Theatres," American Architect, XLV
(July, 1894), 7.
17. Otis Skinner, Footlights and Spotlights (Indianapolis, Indiana, 1924), p. 59.
18. Fitzgerald, World Behind the Scenes, pp. 33-34.
19. "Ventilation of Theatres" (editorial), New York
Times, May 19, 1872, p. 4.
20. Walter A. Roth, "The Hygiene of the Theatre,"
American Architect, XXII (October, 1887), 195.
21. J. Cleveland Cady, "The Essential Features of a
Large Opera House," American Architect, XXII (October, 1887), 208.
22. William Paul Gerhard, Theatre Fires and Panics;
Their Causes and Preventions (New York, 18961,
p.91.
.
23. Phyllis Hartnoll, ed., The Oxford CompanJOnto
the Theatre, 2nd ed (London, New York, and Ontario,
1957), p. 467.

24. Louis Hartmann, Theatre Lighting (New York,
1930), p. 8.
25. Ernest A E. Woodrow, "Views of an English Architect on Theatre Constructlon," Inland Architect,
XVI (October, 1890). 28,
26. Ernest A, E. Woodrow, "Theatre Building Regulations," American Architect, XXXVII (August, 18921,
86,
27. Gagey, San Francisco Stage, p. 109.
28. William Winter, The Life of David Belasco (New
York, 19191, II, 245.
29. "Electric Light at the Savoy Theatre," Nature,
XXVII (March, 18831,418.
30. "Application of the Electric Light in Theatres,"
Scientific American Supplement, XVI (November,
1883),6535-36.
31. ew York Times, December 4, 1881, p. 9.
32. San Francisco Theatre Research Monograph,
ed. Estavan, XVII, 135.
33. ew York Times, December 5, 1890, p. 3.
34. ew York Times, March 16, 1889, p. 8.
35. Percy MacKaye, Epoch ( ew York, 1927), II,
482.
36. George D. Pyper, The Romance of an Old Playhouse (Salt Lake City, 1928). p. 134.
37. Drew, My Years on the Stage,.p. 74.
38. Hartmann, Theatre Lighting, p. 9.
39. "Fire Risks from Electric Lighting," Nature, XXV
(January, 1882). 223.
40. "Fire Risks from Electric Lighting," Nature,
XXVII (May, 1883), 44.
41. New York Times, May 28, 1894, p. 4.

Visual Adaptation and Stage Lighting
DENNIS J, SPORRE
State University of New York, Plattsburgh

Selden and Sellman explain that "An audience can see a dimly lighted scene much
more clearly (and with less strain) if the
house lights are dimmed slowly and if the
house is left dark for a few seconds before
the curtain rises
.Adaptation takes place
in a few seconds when light becomes
brighter, but it takes as much as several
minutes for adaptation from light to dark." 1
Every lighting designer and technician has
at one time or another considered the effects of illumination on the adaptive powers
of an audience member's eye. However, no
one has yet been abl e to adequately explain visual adaptation as it occurs in the
confines of the theatre. The entire adaptive
process remains, for the lighting designer,
an unexplained phenomenon. Perhaps there
is a need to challenge the idea that visual
adaptation has relevance to the theatre.
We must assu me that "visual adaptation" in
the theatre is concerned with the relation
between threshold sensitivity and intensity:
that is to say the effect of a variable quantityof light on stage on the audience's ability
to perceive. This is a relatively simple operational definition for visual adaptation.
The

term

adapt

"comes from the Latin

adaptare, meaning to adjust. The original
meaning is, therefore, "adjustment." 2 Light
adaptation, obviously, is a much narrower
term, and "is commonly defined as the rise

~

THEATRE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

MAY, 1969

in visual threshold which accompanies irradiation of the eye."3 A more lucid definition is offered by H.D. Baker, who has done
some of the most conclusive work in the
area of light adaptation. "Light adaptation
may be defined as the change in sensitivity
of an initially dark-adapted eye which occurs
as the eye is exposed to light."ยท Even this
definition has some ambiguity. On the basis
of Hecht's experiments' the concept of the
initially dark-adapted eye may be omitted
from the definition. A modified definition of
light adaptation would therefore read, "Light
adaptation may be defined as the change
in sensitivity ... which occurs as the eye is
exposed to light" of a greater intensity.
Another important term which emerges from
scientific studies of visual adaptation and
which has relevance here is " 'Level of
adaptation' " would be defined in terms of
the production of a criterion threshold,
whether the test flash be superimposed on
an adapting stimulus or projected alter the
preadapting
stimulus had been extingu ished." 6 "Threshold"
in reference to
light adaptation, is the point at which an
object becomes visible. 7 The criterion for
a study of stage lighting should be the
th reshold of the observer in reference to
objects on the stage. If at the moment of
first contact with stage illumination the objects are not visible, and if, as time elapses
with other conditions remaining the same,

the objects become visible, then adaptation
will have taken place. 8 Hence, adaptation
means the change in visual threshold relative
to test objects under constant conditions.
This criterion has been chosen because
visibility is the primary consideration in
stage lighting.

Over the last century, experiments by SUCh
individuals as G. T. Fechner} Koenig and
Brodhun,lo Selig Hecht,11 Schouten and
Ornstein, 12 H. Baker, 13 S.M. Anstis, I.
Onley and Sternheim, 15 Griffiths and Behrman, 16 and E.J. Rinalducci 17 have shown
conclusively that under certain conditions
the eye does adapt to changes in illumination. And from these experiments much is
known about the nature and the mechanisms
of adaptation. The value of these experiments to the theatre situation, however, has
been extremely limited. The most reliable
tests of visual adaptation have used a carefully controlled visual field. Most employ a
system of binocular matching, one which
has absolutely no application to the theatre.
On the other hand, Ernst Simonson's experiment 18 indicates that there are more
general conditions under which changes of
illumination do make a difference in the visibility or the perception of objects, and that
the eye does adapt to these conditions.
There is a basis, then, for assuming that

7



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1969 - Contents
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