Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1970 - 24

Hungary. [Whether all those "opera houses"
in the American West were counted is
doubtful.] By 1926, however, the theatre
census, which now, for some reason, included Italy, counted exactly 2,599 theatres.
The reasons for this rash of theatre construction, most of which was brought to a
close by World War I, include, according to
Hoffmann: 1) new houses to replace burntout theatres, 2) fireproof structures to replace existing wooden playhouses, 3) growth
of national and civic pride, requiring construction of national and city theatres in astounding numbers, 4) relative prosperity
and stabil ity, which encouraged both arts and
arch it ectu reo
This demand for palaces of Thespis kept
a number of architectural firms in brisk
business. In 37 years, some 1 ,500 theatres
were built, the greater number before the
First World War. Among the leading German
and Austrian design studios were those of
Dulfer, Fellner and Helmer, Heilmann and
Littmann, Kaufmann, Moritz, Seeling, and
Sehring. The German architects accounted
for 47 theatres. Fellner and Helmer, working out of Vienna, where they had won
reputations with other structures as well,
designed over 50 representative theatres.
They worked in a style called the Neobaroque, in an art period which is known as
Histarismus in Central Europe. Experts in
art history regard their theatres as perhaps
the most distinctive, the clearest, most
forceful examples of this architectural style.
It shows to best advantage, of course, in a
theatre building, because the theatres were
the spiritual-and often the literal- inheritors
of an aristocratic baroque theatre tradition.
In the actual Baroque period, the theatre
buildings were designed in that showy style
for the pi easure and often for the glorification of the king, prince, duke, or count with
money and a lust for art and immortalizing
himself in architecture. Thus most of the
new theatres of the late nineteenth century
did not attempt to discover new styles, new
decors, though some Jugendstil and Art
Nouveau ones were built. In the early part
of the century, Neo-classicism held sway, especially in Munich where the Natianaltheater and a number of other publ ic buildings
echoed the lines of ancient Greece.
Hoffman has outl ined the work methods of
Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer, including useful brief biographies. His greatest attention, however, is concentrated on
the most outstanding of their theatre projects, with a wealth of pictorial documenta-

24

tion and staggering arrays of statistics about
the various houses. He breaks these down
into groups or types of theatre for ease of
study. Special construction problems are
singled out as well. Among the theatres:
houses in Budapest, Wiesbaden, Hamburg,
Berlin, Vienna, Prague, Salzburg, Odessa,
Sofia- and even a project for an opera
house in New York City, which was, of
course, never built. Their collaboration began in 1873, lasting until Fellner's death
34 years later.
Martin Geck's study, Bildnisse Richard
Wagners, is less of interest to theatre architects and technologists than it is to
theatre historians and opera specialists.
Still, there are some telling comments on
the Bayreuth genius and his methods of operation which may interest any theatre workers who have come in coli tact with the
Wagner operas. The many handsomely reproduced illustrations reveal a great deal about
Wagner's own valuation of himself as a
physical man and a creative talent. The
artful, even disdainful posing in some of
these painti ngs and photographs cannot have
been merely the achievement of the artist
or cameraman. It is no secret that Wagner
had a very high opinion of himself; even
the softly muted portrait by Pierre Renoir
does not exude the composer's customary
self-esteem.
Detta and Michael Petzet's compendium of
Wagner staging is one of those monuments
of research and scholarship for which many
kinds of theatre workers can be grateful.
This book, which might be translated into
English before too long, documents the
crucial premieres of those Wagner operas
which debuted in Munich's Haf-und-Natianaltheater
under the patronage of King
Ludwig II, who was as smitten with the
creations as he was with their creator. It
has vital information for students of music
as well as theatre, and it is especially valuable as a detailed study of stage procedures
in the second half of the nineteenth century, the more so as Wagner was a leading
proponent of the new stagecraft that would
sweep away the dreary, artificial cliches of
the conventional theatre of his time.
Perhaps the plates and sketches of some
of these productions will look, to modern
eyes, as hoary and cliche-ridden as what preceded them did to Wagner's vision. But it
must be remembered, as the Petzets point
out, that Wagner was, in his day, a revolutionary. Still, these productions were being

done in a conventional theatre, and not, as
later, at Bayreuth, where Wagner was free
to experiment in his own theatre in his own
way. He was served, however, even in
Munich by Carl Brandt, builder of many of
his scenic trick devices in Bayreuth, and by
other artists who continued to adhere to him.
But the notion of the Munich Das Rheingold, with its first scene, under the waters
of the Rhine, designed by court theatre
painter Heinrich 0611, opposed to its second
scene among the hills along the Rhine, designed by court theatre painter Christian
Jank, assisted by C.T.P. Angelo Quaglio,
seems strangely alien to the unity of concept Wagner was later to insist upon at
Bayreuth.
Fortunately, the King, angered at Wagner's affair: and later marriage-with Cosima
Liszt von BiJlow, eventually surrendered to
his love of Wagner's music-theatre sufficiently to subsidize the Bayreuth Ring premieres, therefore, the Petzets are able to include those productions within the framework of their subject area. The contrasts
between the Mun ich premieres and those
at Bayreuth are most instructive. The authors
have managed a fine balance of relevant
anecdote, which makes the text fascinating
reading, and sound documentation, which
makes it essential reading as well.
Michael Petzet, in his capacity as Conservator of the Bavarian Administration of
State Castles, Gardens, and Lakes, has intimate and daily access to the many of the
materials used in this research. Thus, he
has also been able to include extensive illustrative and textual material on the Wagnerinspired arch itecture and decors to be found
at Schloss Linderhof-where King Ludwig
actually had built a "Hundings Hut" and a
subterranean "Venusberg"-and at Neu
Schwanstein, which was recently featured
in Harold Prince's first film, Something for
Everybody, largely for its Wagnerian qualities and operatic decorations. Frau Petzet
is herself a stage designer. Both are to be
praised and thanked for this impressive
achievement. The operas documented: Die
fliegenden Hollander, Tristan (premiere),
Lahengrin, Tannhauser, Die Meistersinger
(premiere), Rienzi, Das Rheingald (premiere), Die Walkure (premiere), Siegfried,
Gotterdammerung, and Parsifal (premiere in
Bayreuth).

[]illI] THEATER DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

G.M. Loney

DECEMBER,1970



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