Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 5

There is a curious lack of published photographs for many of Svoboda's designs before 1958. I bel ieve th is may be because
many of the designs before that period were
not what Svoboda considered his best. Perhaps this may be ascribed to the political
situation. In February, 1948 there was a dogmatic application of the doctrine of "Socialist Realism" which apparently forced all
artists dominated by Soviet Bloc policy into
"realistic expression of the dramatic mileau." 3 That Svoboda was performing within the accepted dictum is reinforced by the
following statement by Joseph Trager:

"(At) an international forum in 1956 during the
guest-performance of the Prague National Theatre in
Paris on the occasion of the "Theatre de Nations"
show, Svoboda's descriptive stage-design of Capek's
"Loupeznik" ("The Robber") and of a late-modern
stage design for Nezval's "Atlantis" were generally
declared by Paris critics as an old variant on already
overwhelmed and outdated ideas on realistic stagedesign, satisfied with only an illustrative frame but
not cooperating in creating the dramatic sphere."4

How antithetical this now seems to all of
Svoboda's more recent development.
It was not until political liberalization in
1957 that a relaxation of policy took place,
which was greeted by a surge of artistic
experimentation in all fields of fine and applied arts. By 1958, Svoboda was doing
work he considered really important. (It is
interesting to note Ladislav Vychodil's work
from the Slovak National Theatre during the
late Forties and Fifties. It is the same kind
of "realistic illustrative frame" the Paris
critics refer to.)
Svoboda is certainly influenced by preWorld War II achievements in Czechoslovak
scenic design. As early as ·1 914, Zav¥el was
doing Craig and Appia-inspired work. Hilar
was experimenting with light and plastic

forms by 1918; Hofman used fragmented Svoboda seems to synthesize all the inarchitectural elements by 1922; the two to- fluences from his predecessors; to have
gether experimented with new materials learned all the vocabulary, and to say someprojections, masks, etc. Josef Capek used thing new with it. He experiments with one
light and design expressionistically for The form or style after another; abstract stage
Insect Play (1922): Feurstein (an architect) platforming with a rear translucent screen
used cubism in designing Capek's RUR, on which photographs are projected ("Tales
(1922).
of Hoffman" - 1946 - before the freeze);
With Jiri Frejka constructivism came to the black space with symbolic creative elements
fore, and the use of "real" parts and mater- ("Story of a Real Man-1961 ,settings made
ials made painterly conceptions seem out- of stretched cod on which projections are
of-date. He used realistic partial scenes in played; moving panels which shape and define space ("Hamlet" - 1959); moving elean absolute space; even film shots in The
Pilgrim (1928). He was influenced by a ments and projected photographs which
combine abstractly ("Romeo, Juliette and
trip to the Bauhaus at Dessau, and afterthe Darkness" - 1962) steps, steps, steps
wards analyzed the scene as an "abstract
("Oedipus Rex" - 1963). Every theme is
space volume permanently changing and
tried,
re-used in new permutations. An entransforming by illumination." Frejka was
responsible for bringing to Prague the late tire Cosmos of steps as used in "Oedipus"
become somethi ng quite different as used in
Frantisek Troster, an architect, who saw the
stage as a three-dimensional unit. Troster, "Die Frau Ohne Schatten" when the stagelater to become one of Svoboda's teachers, wide front section lifts up and the 'underbelieved in a synthesis of architectural ele- world' is underneath the steps which form the
ments, movement, rhythm and Iight which upper world.
would support the internal content of the
play.5
E. F. Burian in the 30's, especially working
with Miroslav Kouril, tried new, film-influenced lighting methods: specifically-i lIuminated details, "atmospheric" lighting, the
shaping effect of shadows. His theatre used
no front curtain, and the stage was shaped
by levels, ramps, stairs, etc. "poeticized"
by lighting.
Although both Burian and Frejka were given
well-equipped larger theatres by the late
30's, the experimental spirit engendered by
working in chamber theatres or small difficult spaces remained a feature of their work,
and influenced the following generations of
designers.

In one year he uses totally different stylesin 1965 "The Insect Play" was set in mirrored planes which reflect the floor and the
actors; in "Romeo and Juliet", floating, almost fragile architectural elements unfolded
toward the audience; "Hamlet" used a great,
constantly shifting, heavy bas-relief with
square holes punched in it; for "Faust"
photographs were projected on fragmented,
hanging panels; and in "The Makropulos
Case": realistic interior details were contrasted against a framework carrying clear
plastic panels which reflected letters,
shapes, lights played against them.
All of this may sound like eclecticism, or
like egotistic impositions on the drama,
but illustrations of the sets confirm that

roduction Work, 1965-1970
(photo: Jaromir Svoboda)

@illC] THEATER DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

(photo: Jaromir Svoboda)

FEBRUARY, 1970

5



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 9
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Theatre Design & Technology - Feb 1970 - 18
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com