Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 17

The following is an edited version of a panel discussion
held at St. Clement's Episcopal Church, 423 West 46th
Street, New York, on January 31, 1971, under the auspices
of the USITT Research Committee on
Theatrical Presentation.
The discussion was based upon Donald Denslager's article, "Let There Be Light," in the September 1947 issue
of Theatre Arts.
Ann Falke Wells, Chairman of the USITT Presentation
Committee, welcomed panel members and audience and
went on to thank GTE Sylvania for their grant enabling
transcription, editing, and preparation for eventual publication
of the session in the USITI Journal.
Chairman Wells thanked Century-Strand for providing refreshments, and St. Clement's and Father Gene Monick for
providing the meeting place. She explained that St.

Mr. Oenslager's original 12 points, as
they appeared in Theatre Arts in September, 1 947, were:
1. A simple switchboard with preset control to
obtain mobility.
2. A simple multi-capacity electronic dimmer.
3. Suitable mechanical dimmers for fluorescent
tubes.
4. Radar control of electrical equipment.
5. A high-wattage lamp which will remain cool.
6. A lamp capable of such control that any desired color can be produced.
7. A lamp that will dim without growing warm in
tone.
8. A spotlight with accurate. simple control and
focusing apparatus.
9. A spotlight capable of throwing diffused light
without spill.
10. Shadowless illumination.
11. Greater variety of heat-resisting glass color
filters.
12. Stereoscopic projected scenery to be obtained
by better colors and with more compact and
more intense light sources.

MR. OLSON: I assume that most of you
have read the article, "Let There Be Light,"
and I would like to ask Mr. Oenslager to
tell us a little about how it came to be
written.
MR. OENSLAGER: Edith Isaacs of Theatre
Arts Monthly called me one day, and, noting that they had never had an article on
stage lighting, asked if I would write one.
I wrote "Let There Be Light," and little
did I realize that 24 years later, in 1971,
it would springboard a discussion on contemporary stage lighting.
I have been always primarily concerned
with the spiritual and aesthetic relationship
of light to the scene itself; Light as a force
in the theatre.
I wrote "Let There Be Light" with the
experience of 24 years, and you must realize that it is primarily concerned with lighting for productions within a proscenium
arch.
Twenty-four years before I had been designing scenes for the 4 7 Workshop of Professor Baker at Harvard. Stanley McCandless, in the School of Architecture at that

~

THEATER DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

Clement's, after having functioned as an Episcopal Church,
reverted in 1963-64 to mission status as the Church's mission to the theatre. At this time it became the home of the
American Place Theatre and the St. Clement's Film Association.
Mrs. Wells then introduced Mr. Ron Olson, Vice-Chairman
of the Presentation Committee, who in turn introduced the
panel members: Donald Denslager, noted scenic and lighting
designer and independent consultant; Fred Wolff, former
Chief Engineer, head of research and development for Century Lighting, and currently an independent consultant; William Warfel, Professor of stage lighting at the Yale Drama
School; Steven Miller, registered architect in New York and
a working member of IA TSE; and Donald Gersztoff, lighting
consultant and enviornmental lighting consultant, currently
with Wheel-Garon.

time, was involved in lighting ... Mac was
making spotlights out of cans with lenses
and tape. There was no way in those crude
instruments he was devising to reduce the
area of light on the stage except to pinch
the can at its open end.' We would say to
Mac up on the "A" ladder, "Pinch it
again, give it a harder pinch," and finally:
"That's just perfect."

has the multi-capacity feature called for,
has been achieved.

Over the ensuing 24 years the use of
lighting equipment in the theatre changed,
and since 1947 it has entirely changed.

MR. WOLFF: Fluorescent tubes can be
dimmed quite satisfactorily at the present
time with electronic dimmers. I think we
should hear only the intent of Don's requirement, because at that time suitable
electrical dimmers were not possible for
fluorescent tubes. The only way fluorescent tubes could be satisfactorily dimmed at
that time was mechanically.

I hope today's discussion will assess not
only lighting equipment and its control in
the past, but will also consider future requirements of theatre presentation on new
forms of stages.
In "Let There Be Light," I listed twelve
points that all of us then involved in lighting wanted in order to simplify our work in
the theatre. Since then great advancements
have been made.
MR. OLSON: It must seem to many of us
on the panel that the story about the man
on the "A" ladder hasn't dated that much.
In talking about the twelve points we
should determine which we have solved,
and for which of the others a solution
would still be useful or possible.
The first of the twelve points raised is
that of a simple switchboard with preset
control to obtain mobility.
MR. WARFEL: This, I think, we have
achieved. Only individual philosophy dictates how complex the switchboard need
be. There is no question but that we have
a simple switchboard with preset control
to obtain mobility. No matter what your
interpretation of mobility we have achieved
it; we are there.
MR. OLSON: I don't think there is any dispute about that.
Point Two concerns a simple
capacity electronic dimmer.

multi-

MR. WOLFF: I feel that also has been
achieved because something which is light,
inexpensive, easily controlled, and which

MAY,1971

There are, perhaps, degrees of reliability
which could be questioned.
MR. OLSON: Point Three was one of a
suitable mechanical dimmer for fluorescent
tubes.
Does anyone want to comment?

Today it cannot be done completely
electronically in that you cannot go all the
way out and bring it all the way on with
the same finesse as with incandescence;
but it can be done pretty well. However, at
the present time fluorescent tubes are almost unused in the legitimate theatre.
MR. OENSLAGER: I am not an authority
on electronics or the physics of light, but is
it possible to have a border of fluorescent
light equipment, and dim it without the
tube warming in tone?
MR. WOLFF: Yes, but although a fluorescent tube is very efficient in that it gives
only specific colors more or less, it is of
low intensity. Compared to some of the
higher wattage tungsten halogen lamps,
fluorescents seem like simple flames.
MR. OLSON: Point Seven is closely allied
with the question of suitable mechanical
dimmers for fluorescent tubes. So we'll
skip Four thru Six and talk about a lamp
that will dim without growing warm in tone.
MR. WARFEL: This doesn't exist. That's
the big step we are waiting for, I think. The
only effective dimming means we now have
is control over voltage. When we dim an
incandescent lamp, we take its color temperature more to the red, until it is finally
glowing a dull cherry and disappears.

17



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 31
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Theatre Design & Technology - May 1971 - 33
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