Theatre Design & Technology - May 1972 - 6

appearance of a new style in painting and its being adapted for stage
scenery, or some kinetic sculpture
being created as a theatre milieu
after its initial exposure in an art
gallery, but this desire for new ideas
in theatre production has even occasioned the invention of scenic environments, stage properties, lightshows and other innovations which
have then found their ways into the
galleries and museums. Given this
changing climate, it is not surprising
that the ideas of Appia and Craig
have been looked at and adapted
with varying degrees of alacrity and
success.

tivals, and who would no more have
enjoyed a modernistic tampering with
the Holy Mass than they would have
tolerated a drastic change in the
style and method of Wagner production. Then, as now, the Festival depended on the patronage and subsidy of the Faithful, as well as on
the ticket-sales to the less wealthy
Wagner worshippers. During Siegfried's idyll as producer-conductor
of his father's masterworks, he may
have been careful to avoid desperate novelties, but he was familiar
with Appia's writings and experiments and interested in the theories
and productions of Gordon Craig.

The finest expression of Appia's
theories has appropriately been at
Bayreuth, where the production material is solely the works of Richard
Wagner, those music-dramas which
first inspired Appia to envision a
new stage-craft. But it is also at
Bayreuth that the time-lag between
visionary theory and viable practice,
between graphic art as idea and plastic form as stage-carpentry, is most
vividly demonstrated. If Richard
Wagner was an innovator-in so
many ways-in his day, his widow
Cosima Liszt, like Brecht's widow,
the late Helene Weigel, was determined to preserve the Master's
work as perfectly, as accurately as
possible.

With the passing of Cosima and
then Siegfried-she in the spring of
1930 and he the following summerWinifred Wagner assumed command
of the festival, as Siegfried'swidow.
British by birth and untrained in
music or opera production, except
what she had learned by working
with her husband, she was soon
strongly assisted by Heinz Tietjen,
Intendant of the Berlin Staatsoper,
who became the Festiva I' s Artistic
Director. She also asked him to
supervise the education of the Wagner children, including Wieland and
Wolfgang. His influence, coupled
with the style of Emil Preetorius,
Tietjen's favored stage-designer, was
hardly a baptism of Appia and Craig
for the two boys who wou Id, after
World War II, revive and remold the
Bayreuth Festival into something both
of the theatre theorists wou Id have
surely admired. Kurt Overhoff, a director at the Mozarteum, and the
distinguished Viennese designer,
Alfred Roller, who was then briefly
working at Bayreuth, seem to have
provided somethi ng valuabl e for
Wieland's later work. It was Roller,
Wieland was to admit, who taught
him to prepare his stage designs as
three-dimensional models ratherthan
as sketches or paintings. 2 (Some examples of this technique were prepared by his surviving brother Wolfgang for the 1970 Ring.)

Cosima, by most accounts a dominating, and towards the end, even
terrifying lady, made her wishes
known and saw that they were
obeyed, even when her son, Siegfried Wagner, had assumed the
duties of Bayreuth Festival producer.
She was no friend or admirer of the
Appia vision for Wagner production.
However much Siegfried may have
had to defer to his iron-willed mother, he was not an intellectual slave,
and he was awake to the new theories and ideas in art and theatre
practice, even if they cou Id not immediately be introduced at Bayreuth.
There was, of course, also the problem of the Faithful, those hordes of
Wagner idolators who came religiously to the bi-annual summer fes-

6

When Wieland and Wolfgang were
allowed
to
resume
the
war-

~

interrupted Festival in 1951, the influence of Appia was immediately
noticed, if not so immediately admitted by the brothers. Wieland's
Ring, with its central unifying disc,
surrounded on three sides by an
enormous
cyc,
illuminated
by
abstract
and musically-motivated
changes of color and pattern, proved
even more spare, more abstract,
more suggestive than the visualizations of Appia-if not of Craig. Geoffrey Skelton, an expert on the "New
Bayreuth," as the Festival, the miseen-scene, and the entire ambience
came to be known, quotes Wieland
on
this:
"The
Weltenscheibe
[World-Disk] which I introduced in
1951 has since been copied almost
ad absurdum on all the stages of the
world. One is almost ashamed to
see it nowadays. It has become the
common thing."3
In successive productions, from
1951 to the present, overtones of
Appia have always been quite clear;
and those of Gordon Craig increasingly so. Not that any Wagner productions are direct copies of Craig
designs, or point-by-point applications of Craig theories.
The Bayreuth Festspielhaus was
constructed as a purely provisional
theatre, to await the building of the
great festival temple that Wagner
had once dreamed of having on the
banks of the Isar in Munich-a theatre
which might have excited
Craig's interest, considering his
comments on what a theatre-building
should be, as in The Theatre Advancing. Craig envisioned, in this
fascinating projection of a theatre of
the future, a quite splendid home
for the art:
What of the place in which a drama
would be preserved?
It will be called The Theatre. but it
will not resemble any theatre known
to us in history. in ancient times. or
now.
I take it that the theatre itself will
be architecturally as superb in its
strength
as the noblest pyramid
known to us. There may be one or a
hundred examples of this theatre. but

THEATER DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

MAY. 1972



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - May 1972

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1972 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1972 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1972 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1972 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1972 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - May 1972 - 6
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