Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 21

in the professional theatre today. The theatre was
one of the first targets of legislation governing
working conditions. Regulation of child labor, for
example, was one of the initial attempts at correcting
the unsatisfactory labor conditions. The law which
applied to the utilization of child performers was an
extension of a regulation imposed on other types of
labor. In the 1890's, child labor laws forbade
employment of children "in dangerous or immoral
occupations" by which were meant "acrobatic,
singing and dancing exhibitions."6 This would
eventually lead to the present tangle of union
complications surrounding any child engaged in
professional theatre activity today.
In the early years of the twentieth century, an
event occurred which resulted in certain regulations
which are still intact. On December 30, 1903, the
Iroquois Theatre in Chicago was destroyed by fire.
Estimates of the number of dead ranged from 591 to
736.7 The effect of this tragedy was felt by theatres
allover the world. The resulting legislation and
stringent building codes which help and hinder
present-day theatre managers are still in effect and
greatly influence many aspects of theatrical
production.
A program from the dedicatory performance of
the Iroquois on November 23, 1903, describes a
particular feature of the building that was supposed
to increase the number of exits and entrances:
... all parts of the house being accessible from the grand foyer.
As for exits, they are far more numerous, the entire north
frontage being available for such service in case of emergency ... the directness of entrance and the availability of exits are a
praiseworthy feature of this admirably planned house of
amusement. 8

What the program failed to mention was that the exit
doors were unmarked and heavily draped, and that
they opened inward. The result was that, in the panic
following the realization that a fire had broken out,
hordes of spectators rushed for the doors and piled
up in front of them, blocking the path to safety. In
addition, the only -- totally inadequate -- safety
equipment accessible in the theatre were tubes
eighteen inches long and two inches in diameter
containing a fire-retardant powder called "kilfyre." 9
The extensive laws regulating the size, type and
quantity of fire-fighting equipment can be traced to
the Iroquois disaster.
Other significant regulations resulting from this
fire are those which limit the type of scenery that can
be used and the present-day requirement for fireproof fabrics and an asbestos curtain. In the early
twentieth century theatrical convention dictated extravagant scenic effects. Although the Iroquois was
equipped with an asbestos curtain, a journal of the

~

THEATRE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

period shows a picture of one Fraulein Haerting in
her "aerial ballet" act and claims that "it was to
enable the audience to see the aerial ballet, led by
Miss Haerting, that the asbestos curtain was hauled
up higher than usual. ,,1 0 The su pposed resu It was
that, when a stagehand attempted to lower the
asbestos, the curtain jammed and did not fall
properly. When the fire started on the stage there
was no way to contain it and it quickly spread into
the house. This incident and the subsequent regulations concerning the type of scenery acceptable were
partially responsible for the decl ine of the spectacular sets which were so popular at this time. 11
1903 was not the only notable year in the history
of the fire laws' influence over the theatre. In 1948
the Fino-Clancy bill was introduced into the New
York State legislature. This bill would have required
theatre owners to have at least two firemen present
at each performance. The bill brought up the legal
question of how far publ ic service went. The
proponents of the bi II contended that theatres were
private enterprises operated for profit and benefited
from the presence of the firemen. The theatre owners
and managers opposed the bill because the cost
would have to be borne by management and would
have added a burden to the production budget. The
bill was defeated, but the legal implication remains~2
Not on Iy are the specific req uirements for legal
construction of theatres influenced by the law but the
initial decision as to where to construct the building
is governed by a complex structure of building codes
and the zoning law in New York City (July 25, 1916).
This statute has led to the gradual development of
the "theatre district" in New York City. The code
lists theatre under business and requires that no
theatre be placed in a residential area. These zoning
laws have been a factor in the building of new
theatres in the city and the neccessity for expensive
renovations of already existing buildings. Some of
the off-Broadway theatres avoided the zoning laws by
applying for cabaret licenses instead of theatre
licenses. Circle in the Square began this way and
contained an arrangement of tables which limited
seating capacity and forced the producers to adapt
their productions to limitations imposed on cabarets.

These bu i ld ing reg ulations ind icate another holdover of puritanical views about the theatre. Until
recently, a theatre could not be placed in a building
which housed other activities. This restriction limited
the economic return that could be realized from the
considered property. Perhaps the "city fathers" still
wished to isolate the theatre and therefore avoid the
possi bi Iity of con tag ion by contact?

DECEMBER. 1974

21



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 35
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Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 37
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Theatre Design & Technology - Dec 1974 - 40
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com